The 42nd Annual Conference

of the
International Society for the Systems Sciences
July 18 - 25 1998,
Held at Georgia Tech
Atlanta Geogia


Janet K. Allen, Jennifer M. Wilby, Editors

Table of Contents and Abstracts


Ahari, Parviz Systemic Usability Engineering Experiences From Software
Development Project 3069

Allen, Janet K. The Development of a Sustainable System Under Uncertainty 3135

Allen, Janet K. Numerical Simulation Approaches For Modeling Industrial
Ecosystems 3104

Allen, Janet K. On Evolution and Engineering Systems Development 3109

Bailey, Reid Numerical Simulation Approaches For Modeling Industrial
Ecosystems 3104

Bakehouse, George J. Higher Education In The U.K.: To Sustain or Not to Sustain the
Current System 3127

Bakehouse, George J. Information, Its Dimensions and Quality 3129

Bashias, Norman J. Using Distributed Computing Systems for Systemic Problem-Solving

Bausch, Kenneth C. A Confluence of Paradigm and Technology 3165

Bazewicz, Mieczyslaw On a Systemic Image of the Nature of Information 3108

Beeson, Ian Knowledge Drains: Automation and the Loss of Local Expertise 3038

Beeson, Ian Software for Sustaining Community: Metaphors in Collision 3039

Beeson, Ian Negotiating Expectations: Towards Sustainable Technology 3041

Benking, Heiner A House of Horizons and Perspectives a Cognitve Deep Openspace For Positioning, Comparing, Merging and
Morphing our Metaphors, Models, Maps and Views 3060

Bergson, Bryan The Univesal Language 3008


Bergson, Bryan Darwin Evolution 3176

Bergvall-Kareborn, B. Analysing the Managerial Concept of Soft Systems Methodology
and Multi-Modal Systems Thinking 3164

Bhola, H.S. Between the Social and the Spiritual: Reconciliation in South
Africa 3178

Biggiero, Lucio Sources of Complexity in Human Systms 3194

Blind, Knut The Influence of Personal Attitudes on the Estimation of The
Future Development of Science and Technology: A Factor
Analysis Approach 3065

Brady, Chris Football, Business, and Government - Can Studies of High Level
Teams Across Disciplines Produce Generic Principles For
Management 3072

Bras, Bert Energy Accounting - A Step Towards Sustainability 3073

Bras, Bert Numerical Simulation Approaches For Modeling Industrial
Ecosystems 3104

Broadbent, John A. Rationale For a System Approach to Industrial Design Education 3105

Brown, M.T. Emergy, Environmental Loading, and Carrying Capacity of
Production Systems 3151

Bryant, Alden Human Society at the Climate Crossroads 3093

Burkhardt, Helmut Ecological Sustainability Through Alternative Energy 3171

Byeon, Jong Heon Consolidation of a Democratic System in the Bifurcation Process3062

Elohimjl Learning to Build a Sustainable Economy: It Ought to Be
Terrestrially, Biologically & Humanely Minded 3056

Emblesvag, Jan Energy Accounting - A Step Towards Sustainability 3073

Escoe, Kenneth The Development of a Systainable System Under Uncertainty 3135

Evans, Thomas The Flaw in the Defenition of a Liability 3003

Farre, George L. Emergence: Its Characteristics and Limits 3153

Fey, Willard R. Pie in the Sky': A System Dynamics Perspective of Sustainability

Francois, Charles Human System Inquiry About Sustainable Development: A
Proposal for a Systemic Methodology of Inquiry 3066

Frandberg, Tage Living Systems a Study of Its Philosophical Background 3048

Friend, Gil Business-Driven Sustainable Development By "Back-Casting"
From First Order Sustainability Principles 3120

Galloway, Walter B. Appreciative Inquiry: A Mechanism For Maximizing Empower in
Social Systems 3107

Gawitrha Toward A Science With Soul 3085

Georgiades, Savvas D. A Synthesis of Systemic Change in Child Protective Services:
Meta-level Implications For Family Preservation Practice 3190

Grupp, Hariolf The Influence of Personal Attitudes on the Estimation of The
Future Development of Science and Technology: A Factor
Analysis Approach 3065

Guimaraes, Tor Using a Systems Approach to Analyze the Impact of Financial
Systems On Society 3079

Hamchaoui, Lara The Influence of Behavoural Skills on Performance Management
and Its Implications For Businesses Today 3068

Hammond, Debora Historical Perspective on the ISSS: Concluding Reflections 3087

Hawk, David L. Sustainable Technology as a Revisitation of the Entropy
Argument & Related Dreams of Reason 3037

Hebel, M. Human Values in Technology 3028

Herrmann, Amy E. The Development of a Sustainable System UInder Uncertainty 3135

Herrscher, Enrique, G. A Systems Approach to Business Ethics A Discussion Paper 3029

Hershey, Daniel Entropy, Infinity, and God - The Universe and Beyond 3005

Hershey, Daniel Six Parameters for Restructuring a Corporation: A Case History 3006

Herz, Sylvia Homocidal Pre-teens Do Not Come from Mars 3185

Hilton, Brian John The Impact of Modern Commercial Production and Procurement
Practices on Cost Estimating and Forecasting 3200

Holmberg, John Business-Driven Sustainable Development By "Back-Casting"
From First Order Sustainability Principles 3120

Hung, Shih-Chang Personal Computer Technology and Taiwanese Institutional
Structures 3112

Hutchinson, W.E. The Role of Pragmatism in the Use of Systems Thinking for
Organisational Change 3010

Ishida, Kazunari A Simulator For Operational Organization Design 3096

Ishida, Kazunari A Cyber Commons In a Virtual Society 3097

Jaros, Gyorgy Sustainable Technology: Meeting of Spirit, Mind and Matter 3001

Jaros, Gyorgy Living Systems Theory of James Grier Miller and Teleonics 3203

Jeffery, Christopher A Systems Approach to Measurement of Customer Loyalty -Case
Evidence 3100

Jeffery, Christopher The Creation of Metaphors to Illustrate the Complexity of
Customer Loyalty 3101

Kangas, Patrick Modeling Dangerous Ideas: The Energetics of Revolution 3110

Karamanos, Anastasios Managerial Heuristics For Knowledge Creation 3119

Kauffman, L. Process Thermodynamics and Information Entropy. Empirical
Study and Mathematical Formulation 3091

Kauffman, L. Mathematical Physiology: A Process Theory of Systems 3092

Kelliher, Charles F. The Flaw in the Defenition of a Liability 3003

Kleva, Marty Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as a Path to Individuation
Through the Hero's Journey: A Phenomenological Study 3036

Kick, Russell C. Spirituality and the New Millennium 3007

Konecki, J. Applying the Process Theory of Systems to Deprssive Illness:
Coupling Neurohormone and Co-Creative Behavior 3090

Krattli, Inga Territoriality and Social Organization: A Study on Man's Spatial
Relationships 3199

Lam, Ann C. Wimberly "Pie in the Sky': A System Dynamics Perspective of Sustainability

Latorre, Emilio. The Balanced Method: A Holistic Approach to Enterprise
Environmental Impact Assessment 3018

Latorre, Emilio E. The Environmental Management System in Cali, Columbia The
Use of a Systems Approach to Design a City Environmental
Authority 3019

Latorre, Emilio E. The Use of the Primer Project and Systems Science in Teaching
Environmental Enterprise Management in a University in
Cali, Columbia 3020

Lee, Beomung Communitarin Ethics and System Thinking to Build the
Sustainable Ecological Community 3159

Levidow, Les Exploring the Links Between Science, Risk, Uncertainity and
Ethics in Regulatory Controversies About the Commercial
Release of Genetically Modified Crops in Europe 3156

Levkov, Sergey System Approach to Modeling the Stock Market Trading
Patterns 3183

Levkov, Sergey Neuronet Approach to System Analysis and Modeling of Large
Social, Ecological, and Economical Systems 3184

Maier-Speredelozzi, Valerie The Development of a Systainable System Under
Uncertainty 3135

Mandel, Thomas The Four Winds: Meta-Perspectualism and Perspectualism the
One and The Many 3077

Marenko, Alexander System Approach to Modeling the Stock Market Trading

Marenko, Alexander Neuronet Approach to System Analysis and Modeling of Large
Social, Ecological, and Economical Systems 3184

Martin, Jay Emergy Analyses of River Diversions Within the Mississippi

McGarry, Donna DeWitt Next Level Thinking 3179

McNamara, Curt Applied Systems Thinking 3115

Minati, Gianfranco Conceptual Frameworks for the Representation of Growth,
Development and Sustainable Development 3011

Mirijamdotter, Anita A Multi-Modal Systems Extension to Soft Systems Methodology:
An Empirical Study 3161

Miskelly, Clodagh Software for Sustaining Community: Metaphors in Collision 3039

Mistree, Farrokh Numerical Simulation Approaches For Modeling Industrial
Ecosystems 3104

Nava-Tudela, Alfredo Modeling Dangerous Ideas: The Energetics of Revolution 3110

Odum, Howard T. Energy Hierarchy of the Earth 3067

Odum, Howard T. Limits to Memory in Ecosystems and Society 3114

O'Hara, Maggi Behavioral Treatment For the Developmentally Disabled: A
Systems Analysis of a Florida Residential Service Program 3078

Ohta, Toshizumi A Simulator For Operational Organization Design 3096

Ohta, Toshizumi A Cyber Commons In a Virtual Society 3097

Olivia-Lopez, Eduardo Promoting Inquiring Attitudes For Effective Managerial
Development 3080

Parent, Elaine R. Application of a Living Systems Perspective on Human
Experience: An Educational Model for Life Planning and
Change 3016

Parent, Elaine R. A Living Systems Perspective as a Metaframework for Viewing
the Dynamics of Human Experience 3017

Park, Hyo-chong The Medical Insurance as an Agenda For Systems thinking: The
Korean Case 3157

Park, Jiwoon The Ethical Cognition About Complex World 3158

Patel, M. Applying the Process Theory of Systems to Deprssive Illness:
Coupling Neurohormone and Co-Creative Behavior 3090

Patel, M. Process Thermodynamics and Information Entropy. Empirical
Study and Mathematical Formulation 3091

Pederson, Kjartan Numerical Simulation Approaches For Modeling Industrial
Ecosystems 3104

Pesch, Gerald G. Appreciative Inquiry: A Mechanism For Maximizing Empower in
Social Systems 3107

Pothas, Anne-Marie Methodological Issues in Qualitative Analyses Based on Open-Ended
Questions: Whom to Question? 3147

Pothas, Anne-Marie Methodological Issues in Qualitative Analyses Based on Open-Ended
Questions: Phrasing the Questions 3148

Porter, Alan L. Forecasting Technological Sustainability 3071

Rapoport, Anatol The Problem of Peace From a General Systems Theory
Perspective 3193

Randrup, Axel The Perennial Philosophy 3013

Reavill, Lawrence R.P. The Influence of Behavoural Skills on Performance Management
and Its Implications For Businesses Today 3068

Reavill, Lawrence R.P. Football, Business, and Government - Can Studies of High Level
Teams Across Disciplines Produce Generic Principles For
Management 3072

Reavill, Lawrence R.P. A Systems Based Stakeholder Model of Higher Education 3082

Reavill, Lawrence R.P. The Application of Chaos Theory to the Management of Change
in Organisations: A Theory of Humility: Metaphor or
Reality 3084

Reavill, Lawrence R.P. Towards and Analytical Framework for Change 3118

Rhee, Yong Pil Complex Systems Model For the Analysis of Politics 3131

Robert, Karl-Henrik Business-Driven Sustainable Development By "Back-Casting"
From First Order Sustainability Principles 3120

Robinson, Sionade The Influence of Behavoural Skills on Performance Management
and Its Implications For Businesses Today 3068

Robinson, Sionade The Creation of Metaphors to Illustrate the Complexity of
Customer Loyalty 3101

Robles-Diaz-de-Leon, L.F. Modeling Dangerous Ideas: The Energetics of Revolution 3110

Rose, James Integrity Pradigm A Systems Process and Philosophy 3043

Rose, James Systems Ethics: Coordinating Respect, Priorities and
Opportunities 3044

Rose, James Broad Application of "Integrity" to Sustainability 3046

Rose, James Proportional Entropies: A New Class of Power Law 3047

Rose, James A House of Horizons and Perspectives a Cognitve Deep
Openspace For Positioning, Comparing, Merging and
Morphing our Metaphors, Models, Maps and Views 3060

Rose, James Broad Application of Sustainability 3197

Rose, James N. Integrity Paradigm: A Systems Process and Philospohy 3033

Rosen, David W. The Development of a Sustainable System Under Uncertainty 3135

Sabelli, H. Applying the Process Theory of Systems to Deprssive Illness:
Coupling Neurohormone and Co-Creative Behavior 3090

Sabelli, H. Mathematical Physiology: A Process Theory of Systems 3092

Salvary, Stanley W.C. Instrumentation and Calibration in Financial Accounting 3121

Savva, Savely A Systems Approach in Biology and Biophysics 3032

Schoon, Ben Sustainable Food Production and Structures of Responsibility 3145

Scott, Elaine The Application of Chaos Theory to the Management of Change
in Organisations: A theory of Humility: Metaphor or Reality3084

Schwaninger, Markus Organizational Intelligence: The Ecological Dimension 3170

Sendzimir, Jan Limits to Memory in Ecosystems and Society 3114

Silva-Mendoza, E. R. Promoting Inquiring Attitudes For Effective Managerial
Development 3080

Simms, James R. Living Systems Theory, Information and Knowledge 3180

Slawski, Carl Social E-Co-Realization: A Biospherical Ideal of "Syntropic
Wisdom" 3026

Slawski, Carl Triangulating Levels of 'True Theory': The Case of 'Earth and
Global-Societal Sustainability 3027

Starkermann, Rudolf Unity is Strength: From "Viribus Unitis" To "Corruptio" 3030

Starkermann, Rudolf The Enemy of My Enemy is My Friend 3167

Strickland, Francis Towards and Analytical Framework for Change 3118

Strijbos, S. Towards a New Critical Systems Thinking: Philosophical
Reflections on Systems Methodology and Systemms Ethics

Subramanian, B.G. NLq Theory Applications to Modeling Complex Nonlinear
Systems 3113

Sugerman,A. Applying the Process Theory of Systems to Deprssive Illness:
Coupling Neurohormone and Co-Creative Behavior 3090

Sugerman,A. Process Thermodynamics and Information Entropy. Empirical
Study and Mathematical Formulation 3091

Sundel, Martin A Social Systems Approach to Improve Mental Health and Ethnic
Relations In Cyprus 3034


Tausner, Miriam R. Using Distributed Computing Systems for Systemic Problem-Solving

Tilley, David R. Emergy Basis For Ecosystem Management: Valuing the Work of
Nature and Humanity 3095

Tracy, Lane How to Kill a Living System 3181

Trees, Kathryn The Role of Information Systems in Sustaining Indigenous
Communities: The Ieramugadu Cultural Project 3134

Turk, Andrew The Role of Information Systems in Sustaining Indigenous
Communities: The Ieramugadu Cultural Project 3134

Uligiati, S. Emergy, Environmental Loading, and Carrying Capacity of
Production Systems 3151

van der Lei, J. Evaluation of a Drug-Safety System 3142

van der Stoep, Jan Internet: A Game Without Rules 3143

Vanegas, Jorge Towards Sustainable Civil Infrastructure Systems 3094

van Gigch, John P. The Viability of System Science as a Scientific Discipline 3061

Vlug, A.E. Evaluation of a Drug-Safety System 3142

Waters, Sam Information, Its Dimensions and Quality 3129

White, Elizabeth Homo's Quest For Understanding Viewed as Innate Human
Spirituality: Implications For Secular Leadership 3102

Williams, M. C. The Influence of Multi-Modal Thinking on a Self-Study of
Teaching Reform In a University Information Systems
Course 3025

Wilby, Jennifer M. Three Paths For Exploring Hierarchy Theory 3173

Wilton, J. T. Process Oriented Change With the Industrial Supply System - A
Systemic Evaluation of Current Practices 3106

Wood, Fred B. The N-Dimensional Knowledge Proximity Approach To
Technology Assessment: The Case of Quantum
Electromagnetic Systems 3103

Zelenskiy, Valeriy V. System Approach to Modeling the Stock Market Trading
Patterns 3183

Zhu, Zhichang A Trinitarian Relations Inquiry System in Systems/Management
Approaches? - More Findings 3002




Tom Abel
University of Florida

Understanding the environmental and cultural impacts of economic development choices is a global imperative as our world resources continue to be depleted and international capital overtakes the natural frontiers. Theoretical frameworks of complex ecological systems are necessary to evaluate the nested, multiple scale effects of human actions in nature. Through research that explicitly addresses the interconnected human and natural impacts of development we can hope to successfully influence policy. One such natural frontier that has recently seen significant development is the island of Bonaire in the Netherlands Antilles. Even eco-tourism development generates effects that ripple through natural and cultural environments. This case study, conducted by an anthropologist in one year of fieldwork, identifies and examines these global processes, with focused attention to both larger and smaller scale impacts. This case study uses Emergy accounting to evaluate the flows of natural and imported goods that have become part of Bonaire’s tourism development. And it uses Emergy theory to attempt to understand the social-organizational-economic transformations that have accompanied this lower-impact development alternative.

William Acar
Graduate School of Management Kent State University
Kent, OH 44242

The managerial conventional wisdom holds that experience is the best teacher. This view has been reinforced by the popular press. The current thrust of the theoretical literature, however bypasses this potentially paralysing paradox by shifting its focus from the management of tangibles to that of intangible assets and knowledge.
As globalization becomes a reality and hypercompetition is pervasive, organizational learning theorists (e.g, Levinthal & March, 1993; Nass, 1994; Nonak, 1994) hold that the art of management itself could also benefit from continuous improvement. However, as pointed out by Weick (1979), Ackoff (1981) and Mintzberg (1989, 1994), strategic larning involves complex processes; yet one can hardly opt out of the competitive race.
One approach is to conjure up a multiplicity of futures and thus assess environmental uncertainties and their implications (Wack, 1985; Schoemaker, 1993). With current advances in information technology (IT), this approach is emerging as a leading-edge area of strategic theory. In addition to devising environmental scenarios, it has been shown by Acar (1983) and Georgantzas and Acar (1995) that the outcomes resulting from environmental triggers and company actions can be computed on a contingency basis by alternating forward and backward analyses, thus providing a resolution of Weick's (1979) paradox.
This paper presents an approach to the scenario analysis of complex sociooeconomic environments based on a causal mapping technique that allows accurate representations of the propagation of change in a causal network. Because it is a representation of cognitive certainties and uncertainties, it is an excellent vehicle for an analytically-based form of strategic organizational learning.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Assumptional Analysis, Causal Mapping, Strategic Organizational Analsis

Systemic Usability Engineering Experiences from a software development project
Parviz Ahari
Studentbacken 25-011
115 57 Stockholm Sweden

Software development involves customers, designers and products. The relations among these components seem to be quite obvious. Customers need a product and sometimes they contact designers to develop and deliver this product.
However, customers do not want just a product. They require that the product should have certain characteristics, for example, in respect to quality, price, delivery time, compatibility, extendability, integrability with other products, operation and maintenace.
These requirements make the product development a difficult task which initiates complex activities. In addtion to these issues it may also happen that customers do not know exactly what they want or the product that they want may not be the product which they should have.
These complex activities involve individuals, groups, organizations and societies. They involve also other products, standards, regulations, guidelines, cultural aspects, and ethical issues.
In this paper some experiences from a software development project will be discussed from the systemic usability engineering point of view. Systemic usability engineering integrates living systems theory and breakthrough thinking with engineering activities and issues. It provides an effective methodology for understanding systems' purposes, complex processes and their relations. This knowledge is required for developing more useful products for human systems.

Supply side sustainability: a hierarchy theoretic model for incorporating technology
T. F. H. Allen
Botany Department, Birge Hall
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1381

Ecological sustainability depends on societal sustainability. Societies are problem-solving systems whose hierarchical structure elaborates horizontally and eventually vertically in the face of problems. Horizontal elaboration arises from solving local problems as they arise, as happens in evolution of biological systems. Societies are complicated, like organisms, in that the infrastructure left from past problem-solving accumulates. Such complicated systems soon become unmanageable, as diminishing returns (marginal product) make the cost of problem solving too burdensome (eg. in the Western Roman Empire was abandoned. The way out is vertical differentiation through emergence, when local solutions stumble into positive feedback. For instance, coal-fueled pumps facilitate deeper mines (Roman slaves with buckets would have gone nowhere). Modern complex society derives from a series of vertical differentiations related to energy capture: agriculture, irrigation and metallurgy, imperialism, and industrialization. The information revolution offers the potential both to capture and conserve energy, but the quality of information is presently poor. The next recalibration must be of information quality.
Supply side sustainability recommends plugging into the sun with as little complicatedness as possible. 1) Manage for whole ecosystems, not resources. 2) Manage from the context to facilitate internal functioning. The healthy ecosystems in context subsidize the effort. 3) Use positive feedbacks to achieve system change. Today that means commerce. In the quality revolution, standards could be maintained by academic institutions (which presently play a marginal role). Failure to achieve a government catalyzed, business driven, academically facilitated increase in quality will lead quickly to non-sustainability.

T.F.H. Allen
Botany Department
University of Wisconsin
Madison WI 53706-1381

Complexity needs to be parsed into two parts: 1) complicatedness and b) complexity of organization. In hierarchical terms, complicated systems are strongly horizontally differentiated to make a flat hierarchy. Such systems exhibit complicated behavior. As systems differentiate horizontally, they tend to differentiate vertically also, developing new levels of organization by an elaboration of organization. In contrast to horizontal differentiation, increased vertical differentiation makes system behavior simpler by collapsing degrees of freedom against the constraints coming from the upper levels. It is worth looking into ecological systems to see if there is a distinction between variables for complicatedness, which should increase continuously with system size, and variables for organizational complexity, which should change discretely with system size.

Kenneth D. Bailey
Department of Sociology, UCLA
405 Hilgard Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90095

While technology is one of the most important factors in modern society, it is ironically somewhat neglected in both social theory and systems theory. This is partly due to the current emphasis on living systems. For example, Living Systems Theory seldom emphasizes the term “technology”, instead of referring to technological entities as “artifacts”, and generally treating them as inclusions into human systems. Sociological theory, while never emphasizing technology to any great degree becomes ever more specialized and fragmented). We clearly need a marcosociological systems theory that is broad enough to incorporate nonliving elements such as technology, along with living elements such as social organization.
I have endeavored to construct such and integrated theory in the form of Social Entropy Theory (SET). SET utilizes, among other things, the acronym PISTOL, for Population, Information, Space, Technology, Organization, and Level of Living. These are seen to be six important and interrelated factors that are used by every society -- large or small -- in its everyday development. According to this model, each society utilizes energy (either internal or imported) to adapt to its particular spatial environment. This involves doing work thought both its available technology, and its particular level of organizational development. With its spatial area and population size as givens at a particular point in time, each society must utilize information , organization and technology (including both information technology and non-information technology) in order to produce the maximally efficient degree of work that its energy resources will allow. If it is successful, entropy can be controlled at acceptable levels, thus allowing the society to maintain or even increase its level of living. If it is unsuccessful for any reason (e.g., overpopulation, inadequate energy resources, faulty information processing, antiquated technology, or bureaucratic pathology), then entropy may increase, perhaps to the point where the very future of the entire society is in doubt (as is currently the case in North Korea.)

Reid Bailey, Bert Bras and Janet K. Allen
Systems Realization Laboratory
G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA

Industrial ecology deals with the study of systems of industries/communities working together to mimic natural ecosystems, primarily through transforming linear, open loop material and energy processes to closed loop, feedback processes. Industrial ecology is a “systems-oriented concept [which] suggests that industrial design and manufacturing processes are not performed in isolation from their surroundings, but rather are influenced by them, and, in turn, influence them” [1]. Just as waste from one organism in nature is food for other organisms, waste in an industrial ecosystem is treated as a resource [2]. The complex dynamics of closed material, energy, and information loops in industrial ecosystems makes them a prime candidate for computer-based, numerical simulation. We assert that, with the aid of simulation, options for improvement at the system level of industrial ecosystems can be explored quickly and effectively. In supporting this assertion, we first investigate the nature of simulation in a general context.
The word “simulation” has almost as many meanings as the word “system.” Simon refers to simulation with one word, “imitation” [3]; Forrester is more explicit in defining simulation as “the tracing of a specific time history” [4]; Gordon focuses on simulation as “a technique of solving problems by following the changes over time of a dynamic model of a system” [5]; others emphasize that simulation “involves the representation of a system or organization by another system” or that simulation is “a method for analyzing the behavior of a system by computing its time path” [6, 7]. In this paper, we explore these and other perceptions of simulation in constructing our frame of reference for investigating different approaches to numerical simulation.
A common, fundamental thread to all definitions of simulation is that a modeler is trying to understand a system better through simulation. Simulation is performed to learn about systems. Systems, of course, exist in all shapes, sizes, and kinds and different people may want to learn about different aspects of these systems. Consequently, several simulation approaches and tools have been developed for use with different types of systems and different types of studies. Approaches include discrete event modeling, system dynamics, queuing theory, and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. One objective in this paper is to differentiate between the major numerical simulation techniques and identify situations well-suited to certain approaches.
Anchored in our general exploration of simulation approaches, we examine the relevance of simulation in the development of industrial ecosystems. Modeling approaches identified and investigated earlier in the paper are examined with respect to their application to studying the material, energy, and information flows in industrial ecosystems. We argue that no single approach is “best” for industrial ecology; instead, it depends on the nature of the investigation.
The most direct contribution of this paper is the identification of appropriate modeling approaches for industrial ecosystems. Before spending excessive resources on implementing a particular approach to modeling industrial ecosystems, the area of simulation in general should be explored and analyzed for the most promising approaches. This paper contains such an exploration and analysis. The particularization of simulation to industrial ecosystems presented in this paper is built upon a strong foundation. This foundation is composed of an extensive review of existing approaches and, more fundamentally, an exploration of the meaning of “simulation.”


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Higher education In the uk: to sustain or not to sustain the current system?
George J. Bakehouse
School of Information Systems
The University of the West of England, Bristol, England

Sustainable development has become a key concept in a multitude of disciplines, originally confined to ecology, environmental studies, and allied disciplines. It is now becoming a part of the glossary of terms in many academic subjects. Definitions vary, but the majority agree that it involves the sustainability of current systems into the future; in some cases this involves the provision of a balance between man and nature, i.e. limiting man’s ability to deplete the world of its natural resources, along with man’s ability to pollute and destroy his own environment for short term gains. Should the original aims of the sustainability concept be confined to the physical environment?
Parra-Luna, in the opening session of fourteenth international WACRA conference on Sustainable Development states, “If sustainable development is taken as a system, the accountability of its elements precede any formal definition of the system.... A debate could be opened on whether these elements are only the traditional economic factors which should be compatible with ecological or environmental ones, or whether some other elements of a more social nature should also be taken into account....” This paper will focus on one social system that has sustained itself for over a century at the expense of the majority of eligible participants, the higher education system in the United Kingdom.
A brief overview of the historical development of the education system will be described. The paper will concentrate on the participation of young people in higher education based on their social class and economic background. Major studies have indicated that although the number of young people entering higher education has increased by a dramatic two hundred and fifty percent over the past twenty years, the ratio of entrants based on social background has not changed. The range of participation in higher education as a percentage of possible eligible young people varies from seventy nine percent in the top classification to six percent in the lowest classification group. Education has consistently been viewed as a means of social equalization. Universal education can arguably help reduce disparities of wealth and power by providing young people with the skills to enable than to find a valued place in society. “..The results are clear education tends to express and reaffirm inequalities far more than it acts to change them.” (Giddens).
Equal opportunities in education has been a central issue of concern to successive governments in the UK for many years. The recent change in government and its “new policies” will be discussed. Unfortunately, the future appears to be more of the same: much talk and little action.
The fact remains that young people from the lower social economic classes are proportionally under-represented in higher education. This is particularly evident in the case of young males. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the author believes the research findings cited are not unique to the UK, but are universal.

Keywords: Sustainability, Education, Social Class, Equality

Using Distributed Computing Systems for Systemic Problem-Solving
Dr. Norman J. Bashias
Department of Computer Science, Hofstra University
210 Adams Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549-1030
Dr. Miriam R. Tausner (Contact Author)
Department of Computer Science, City University of New York, College of Staten Island, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10314

In this paper, we present our research in representing complex knowledge in order to automate complex problem-solving on a distributed, multi-processor computer system. We have previously developed a conceptual framework for modeling complex problem-solving based on a systems model and are now researching the implementation of this model as an automated problem-solving tool on powerful state-of-the-art distributed computing systems. Making such modeled knowledge operational on such computer systems will allow researchers to experiment with complex problem-solving, and will provide them with the ability to formulate alternate solutions to complex problems such as those addressed by this conference.
Distributed computing platforms are a new development in the field of computer science. At this juncture, computer scientists are researching ways in which problems can be partitioned to take advantage of these powerful environments. We are convinced that our systemic problem-solving approach will provide a effective way of modeling distributed knowledge, and will be a valuable contribution to the fields of systems science and computer science.
In the model that we have developed, we use different types of systemic knowledge structures at different meta-levels. In addition, we have identified and modeled classes of methodologies which are appropriate for reasoning about each type of knowledge structure and for reasoning about relationships between types of knowledge structures. For instance, one type of systemic knowledge structure is the source knowledge structure, which models collections of attributes and their possible values. An associated class of methodology that we have been using is the source generation methodology, a methodology which generates a new source knowledge structure from a previously-defined source knowledge structure. Another type of systemic knowledge structure is the data knowledge structure, which models collections of observations, which are valuations of attributes. A methodological class which relates source knowledge structures to data knowledge structures is the data generation methodology; this is used for defining data knowledge structures based on source knowledge structures.
In the world of distributed computing, tools are now available for using objects, classes of objects, message-passing, methods appropriate to object classes, etc. in distributed computing environments. Current computer science research is involved in determining appropriate partitioning of problems to use these tools. We believe our systemic problem-solving approach provides such a way of looking at problems to determine appropriate partitionings to make use of distributed environments.
In this paper, we present a case study showing how the knowledge of a group of automotive experts can be partitioned for implementation in a distributed computing environment. In previous work, systemic problem-solving models have been used to formalize the knowledge involved in this case study. Now is the time to represent and implement this problem-solving in distributed computing environment.

A Confluence of Paradigm and Technology
Kenneth C. Bausch
2747 Arbor Ave
Atlanta, GA 30317 USA

In the course of recent research into what systemic thinkers have to say about the nature of social reality, I found converging agreement and a remarkable clarity of vision, which I choose to call the emerging systems paradigm of the social world. This paradigm unites insights about dissipation and autopoiesis:
. Social realities are dissipative structures.
. They are totally temporized.
. They are ongoing patterns that are maintained by their manner of continual reproduction.
. In far-from-equilibrium conditions, these realities are open to bifurcations.
. In far-from-equilibrium conditions, small influences can generate profound evolutionary effects.
. An optimal strategy to create profound change is to concentrate energy at likely bifurcation points.
2. Social structures are autopoietic.
. As ongoing patterns of meaning that are constantly being reproduced, social systems structure their reality on the basis of expectations in order to cope with the complexities of their existence.
. The formula for sustainable and creative existence is to multiply contradictory expectations and to hold them as alternatives for future uncertainties.
The above-mentioned features of the systemic paradigm are incarnated in today’s dominant technologies: the Internet in particular and the interconnectedness of our evolving world in general. These technologies provide the terrain upon which we travel. Our optimal strategy for our journey into a humane and sustainable future is to make conscious use of this confluence of paradigm and technology.

Key words: social systems, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, self-organizing systems, autopoiesis, philosophy

On a Systemic Image of the Nature of Information
Prof. Mieczysaw Bazewicz, Ph.D
Polish Systems Society, Wrocaw University of Technology
50-370 Wroc³aw, Poland, Wybrze Wyspiañskiego 27

We are looking for answers to the questions: what is information, what is an information system? Scholars and scientists tray to find an answer to such questions and formulate various theories of information and theories of information systems. Cognitive currents of communication theory intiated by Wiener, Shannon and by language semiotics are not significantly cultivated neither in science and practice nor in education. The present research results as well as the focus of scholars` and scientists` interests in information problems, very superficially and fragmentally, do not assure chances of a rapid answer to the above questions.The oncoming 21th century of information presents a challenge to create wisdom and knowledge about nature, and to new ways of reasoning by categories of evolutional laws governing the symbiosis of the human being and entities with nature. Reasoning methods are necessary /eg. systems inquiry/ serving a dynamical transformation of knowledge dimensioned by time and value of flow of information about facts perceived by the human being/entities. In the paper a hierarchy and value categorization of levels of info-intellect-energo-transformation of entities are introduced that assure a coexistential dynamical equilibrium between evolutional processes of the nature and processes occuring in social activity systems. Information is living and organic kernal of the intellect-energo-dynamical equilibrium connected /communicated with transformation/ evolution processes of the nature. It plays a particular role in the intellectual transformations of knowledge and in the behavior of human being, and influences his/her consciousness and wisdom levels. The value and importance of information are more dependent of time dimension than the value and importance of knowledge. Information is a crucial factor of processes of evolution and behavior of the nature aiming at achieving a energo-dynamical equilibrium of the reality.

Keywords: Systems Sciences, Information Systems, Systems Evolution, Socio-technological Systems, Systems Transformation of the Nature

Ian Beeson
School of Information Systems
University of the West of England

Automation has produced a progressive stripping out of human skills, knowledge and expertise from one area of work after another. Originally physical, later clerical, and more recently professional work forms have been reduced to codes and rules which can run quasi-autonomously in a machine system. This historical process, still under way, has led to a substantial displacement and loss of human skill and expertise across a wide range of organizational contexts. Zuboff has described these developments, the momentum driving them, and their consequences. She believes that, for organizations to retain sufficient flexibility and capacity for innovation in open, global markets, they must put this process into reverse, unlock their databases and expert systems, re-animate the codified knowledge in them, and re-instill it into the workforce. She suggests that managers will see it to be in their interest to support this projection of knowledge back into the organization, which she calls 'informating'. However, it is by no means clear either that managers will see informating to be in their (or the organization's) interest, or that, even if they do, they will be able to reverse the automation process. It would require managers to cede some of the power that automation has brought them. It is possible that the perennial contention between managers and experts will prevent managers from countenancing the local re-emergence of expertise. It is further possible that experts will not recognize - or will deny - that their expertise is being eroded even as it happens. Importation of packaged knowledge and reliance on external expertise may be irresistibly attractive to management but produce a draining away of accumulated local knowledge. I use an example of the introduction of an automated fingerprint recognition system in a UK police force to show the difficulty of preserving expertise in the midst of technological change.

Ian Beeson and Clodagh Miskelly
School of Information Systems, University of the West of England
Bristol BS16 1QY, UK

The paper gives an account of one aspect of an investigation we are currently undertaking into how community groups might be able to use multimedia PC systems as a vehicle for self-discovery and mobilization. It looks possible to use these systems to create powerfully expressive records of community life. The power and complexity of the equipment, however, present an obstacle. More functions and features are provided, even in an inexpensive system, than can readily be exploited by novice users. There is a danger that, instead of the equipment being fashioned to work for the community's interest, the interest will be moulded to fit the equipment. We note in particular that software designed for professional multimedia applications are difficult for the amateur to master, and bring with them sets of perspectives, features, and metaphors which require considerable energy to assimilate before they can be put to constructive use. If this process of assimilation is not itself to divert the expressive purpose of the users, they must put some work into turning the software to their own advantage. Group members bent on telling their story, recounting their history, or formulating a project, bring to the task their own understandings and metaphors of what community life is. In learning to use the equipment, fresh understandings and metaphors are discovered, embedded in the software packages. To gain benefit from their encounter with the equipment, to make it work for them within their actions and purposes, group members have to learn how to translate and adapt the understandings they already have to the understandings that are presented as they engage with the technology. Out of collisions between metaphors and perspectives, new understandings are forged, and new possibilities opened. Our paper traces this general process with specific reference to one example.

Negotiating Expectations: Towards Sustainable Technology
Ian Beeson and Chris Davis
School of Information Systems, University of the West of England, Bristol, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane,
Bristol BS16 1QY UK

This paper reports some research into the design and implementation processes associated with the introduction of the UK National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS) into the Avon and Somerset Constabulary. The complexity of the system specification and the organisational setting gave rise to a range of expectations of the system and conflicting agendas for its use. These issues are explored through a comprehensive discussion of the research process.
The research process itself is identified as a vehicle for the exploration of participative techniques which can be used to ameliorate the dissonance which arises from these conflicting expectations. The capacity of researchers to facilitate what Elden and Levin (1991) call “cogenerative dialogue” is explored in the context of the case study.
The paper sets out to demonstrate the complementarity of existing methods, tools and techniques, thereby promoting their synthesis. We argue that bridge building is more important in the information systems context than grand theorising.
The local outcomes and national implications of the research to date are reported and discussed in the paper.

Keywords: cogenerative dialogue, value systems, longitudinal study, organisational learning,

A cognitive deep openspace for positioning, comparing, merging and morphing our metaphors, models, maps and views
Heiner Benking
Associate FAW, Ulm, Germany
Co-founder, infoterm, Vienna, Austria
James N Rose
Ceptual Institute
Minden, Nevada, USA

Kant requested orientation not only to take place in the physical world, but also in our thinking. As such orientation must be sharable, which means same positions, origins and horizons we can select from various representation schemas. As all have their benefits, circle, plane, vortex,... only one stands out in his quality to simple and accustomed to all humans: physical, 3-dimensional space. That space is the most common conceptual ground can be found obviously in every language, as spacial metaphors are the basis for social, ecological and foremost abstract concepts. If be endeavor to embody and inhabit conceptual abstract spaces, we can discuss and relate the different foci, levels, aspects and perspectives and even map subjective and objective horizons.
The paper builds a scaffolding of eyes (ranging from the worm’s eye and bird’s eye to the public eye and generations eye and shows how are consciousness and awareness is related to the way we learn about and explore the physical world and later conceptual world through our extensions, self-models and mental models.
It not only combines the physical, contextual and semantic realms into a common panoramic way (which means not in-depth intelligence)and explores the scopic regimes while bridging media and reference schemes. The paper emphasis the need for simple coherent and switchable world views or general systems models, and shows that a panoramic overview is not a hoistic representation (representing everything) but and orientation schema helping to show relations and concepts in their contexts and help to map holarchies created with different aspects in mind
Maybe the following links can show some figures which are indispensable and can help to evaluate the abstract ( beside the ISSS Primer - Wholeness Seminar contributions ):

References at:

Bryan Bergson
Holosystems 27020 Cedar Rd, #104-1
Beachwood, Ohio 44122

A daring hypothetical system is developed for the purpose of universalizing all modes of communication into a single nonverbal language originating from the core of the DNA. This hypothetical language is transmitted by way of a common universal medium, the holofield, at an estimated velocity a billion times that of light. These communication signals are comprised of pure information having neither mass nor energy, so their velocity is not subject to relativistic constraint. The mathematics of this system is based upon the imaginary number, characterizing emergent living systems in which the whole exceeds the sum of its parts. This language is composed of quanta of action defined as thought vectors generated by holistic brain functions. these action quanta, expressible in dimensionless numbers, are designed to bridge the gap between biological and physical phenomena, in keeping with Anatol Rapoport's suggestion that universal language should be mathematical. Existing evidence to substantiate this system of thought is briefly reviewed, but final substantiation awaits the development of holofield communication instruments.

Keywords: language, communication, holofield, thought vector, action, resonance, brain

Bryan Bergson
27020 Cedar Rd, #104-1 Beachwood, OH 44122

“Universal Language” leads logically into “Evolution”, for it is the connectedness of all forms of life that makes universal communication possible. Darwin’s nineteenth century contributions to evolutionary sciences need to be superseded by applying the more advanced tools now available. His simplistic linear approach conflicts with the “nothing but fallacy” advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy. We need to replace this tunnel vision of evolution with the broader perspectives of the twenty-first century promised by the potentialities of the holofield. The combination separation principle is offered as a useful tool for updating evolutionary concepts to account for their complexity and non-linearity. An alternative hypothesis is advanced, suggesting that the evolution of species might be accelerated by the transfer of information in chunks via the holofield rather than by gradual randon statistical experimentation. The mathematical underpinning of this hypothesis is based upon imaginary numbers to accelerate the transfer of information. Funding is needed to implement techniques for generating the hard data necessary to substantiate these hypothetical concepts.

Keywords: Darwin, evolution, holofield, information, resonance.

ANALYSING THE MANAGErial concept of soft systems methodology and multi-modal systems thinking
Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn
Department of Informatics and Systems Science, Luleå University of
Technology, S-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

This work builds on to the Multi-modal development of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). It analyses the management function in Beer's Viable Systems Model (VSM). This is done by comparing Beer's theories concerning management with traditional management functions found in the literature, such as planning, organising, leading and controlling. The conclusion is that Beer's model have a potential in providing managerial structure but lacks in guidance and visions.

H.S. Bhola
Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana, USA, 47405

In the context of the needed dialectic between the social and the spiritual, for reconstruction and development in post-apartheid South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) has been both a historical and moral necessity. With all its limitations as a discourse of atonement and reconciliation, the TRC may have improved the odds for reconstructing a reconciled rainbow nation with a just state and a vibrant civil society. Monumental challenges still lie ahead. The multiple Spiritual systems in which the conscience of peoples is rooted have themselves to be made coherent in the superstructure of a shared moral order that illuminates and sustains the daily lives of all South Africans. The new moral values, even as they are merging and emerging have to be infused into the structures of the state and the institutions and patterns of the civil society. South Africa's "constitution of limits" has to be made elastic both by legislation and the pricked conscience of the powerful and the privileged classes. The circle will need to be completed by creating a system that can deliver to the white and the non-white in South Africa an education of the spirit through a pedagogy of conscience.

Key words: Spiritual Systems. Social-Spiritual Dialectic. Truth and Reconciliation. Civil Society. Education of the Spirit. Pedagogy of Conscience. Cultures of Peace.

Sources of Complexity in Human Systems
Lucio Biggiero
University La Sapienza (Rome), Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, 12, Via Buonarroti, 00185 Roma Italy

Complex is a special attribute we can give to many kinds of systems. In a broad sense, it can be taken as synonym of unpredictable. Human systems are affected by several sources of complexity, belonging to three classes: logical, gnosiological and computational, in order of descending restrictivity. Systems belonging to first class are not predictable at all, those belonging to the second class are predictable only through an infinite computational capacity, and those belonging to the third class are predictable only through a trans-computational capacity. Using (also) a dialectical criterion of demarcation, we can distinguish a precise and useful meaning of the word "complexity", different from that of "difficulty". In first class (logical complexity) are two sources of complexity: the pure logical complexity, directly deriving from self-reference and Gödel incompleteness theorems, and the relational complexity, resulting in a sort of indeterminacy principle occurring in social systems. In the second class (gnosiological complexity) are four sources of complexity: pure gnosiological complexity, which consists in the variety of possible perceptions; the evolutionary complexity, which derives from the genuine notion of evolution; the semiotic complexity, which represents the infinite possible interpretations of signs and facts; and finally the semantic complexity, which consists in the infinite possible interpretations of words and texts. To the third class, computational complexity, belong three sources: pure computational complexity, which basically coincides with the mathematical concept of intractability; chaotic complexity, which characterizes phenomena of some dynamic systems; self-organizational complexity, which addresses the unexpected appearance of order from disorder. Artificial, natural, biological and human systems are characterized by the influence of different sources of complexity, and the latter appear as the most complex.

Keywords: Artificial, Complexity, Computation, Deterministic Chaos, Evolution, Gnosiology, Human Systems, Intractability, Mathematical Logic, Self-Organization, Self-Reference, Semantics, Semiotics


The Influence of Personal Attitudes on the Estimation of the Future Development of Science and Technology: a factor analysis approach
Knut Blind
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Breslauer Str. 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe, Germany
Kerstin Cuhls
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Breslauer Str. 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe, Germany
Hariolf Grupp
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Breslauer Str. 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe, Germany

In 1996, the second German Delphi study was started. The German Delphi ´98 is a two-round Delphi expert survey which is conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Education, Research, Science and Technology (BMBF). The study is published in February 1998 and is now getting into its implementation phase.
Its inherent focus was on the development of science and technology in twelve thematic fields in the next 30 years. In order to arrive at a better understanding of the influence of personal attitudes towards general developments in our natural environment and our society, the respondents were asked in the first round of the Delphi exercise for their personal opinion towards several megatrends concerning our natural environment, economic, sociological and political developments. Over 2.000 answers lead to a very solid data base, which give insights into the general thinking of the German R&D experts. On some topics, there is a high consensus, whereas in others two opposite groups appear. These results also serve as the data base for a factor analysis leading to the identification of five different expert types. In the second step, different patterns in answering the development in science and technology were looked for. In general, it turned out that differences in personal attitudes towards megatrends do not influence the estimation of developments in science and technology. However, differences exist in specific topics and the distribution of five experts types among the respondents differs significantly in the twelve fields.

Rational for A system approach to industrial design education
John A. Broadbent
University of Technology, Sydney
PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia

Elsewhere, we review the evidence for evolutionary processes in those sociocultural systems in which industrial design is embedded(technological, economic, organizational)(Broadbent, 1998). This growing evolutionary awareness is consonant with the General Evolution Theory of Laszlo(1996). We also present evidence which suggests that global societies are at a point where management of these systems, together with the biological systems within which they reside, should recognise and benefit from their evolutionary nature. From this, we further posit that human design activities in general should become ‘evolutionary guidance systems’(Banathy, 1996), if global societies are to successfully navigate the high turbulence many predict for the early decades of the next millenium.
This paper takes this analysis a step further, by examining how this broader view of design might be effectively brought into an undergraduate industrial design program. In doing so, it is important to recognise that industrial design is itself a system yielding a product(and/or service) which is, and increasingly so, a system and which, in turn, interacts with broader sociocultural and biological systems.
The approach taken has been to determine the seemingly central features of General Evolution Theory and apply them to this inclusive view of industrial design. This analysis is set within the dominant influence of our time - the convergence of information/communication technologies with all other fields of human activity, here industrial design. The phenomena examined are: informatization, complexification, convergence(including globalization), divergence, collaboration, efficiency(optimization), turbulence, creativity and ethical responsibility. Each phenomenon has been assessed in terms of how it already finds expression in contemporary industrial design practice, and in respect of its potential for further influence as the Information Age proceeds. These findings are reflected through the program projects and their supporting informational inputs. Traditional design concerns are also incorporated at this stage. A final project seeks to bring all the defined phenomena to bear on the industrial design process at the one time.

Banathy, B.H.(1996) Designing social systems in a changing world. New York: Plenum.
Broadbent, J.A.(1998) Design and evolution. In preparation.
Laszlo, E.(1996) Evolution: the general theory. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

Emergy, Environmental Loading, and Carrying Capacity of Production Systems
M.T. Brown
Dept. Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611, U.S.A.
Sergio Ulgiati
Dept. Chemistry, University of Siena, Pian dei Mantellini 44, 53100
Siena, Italy

Seven electricity production systems are evaluated using emergy evaluation techniques to rank their relative thermodynamic efficiencies using an Emergy Yield Ratio and their environmental efficiencies using an Environmental Loading Ratio. The generation of CO2 was also accounted for in order to compare renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. The production systems include both plants using non-renewable energy sources (natural gas, oil, and coal thermal plants) and the so called renewable energy sources (geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, and photovoltaic plants). A method for evaluating environmental contribution to electric production is shown to provide important information that can be used to support environmentally sound public policy.
Emergy yield ratios of plants varied from a high of 8.2/1 for wind generation to about 5/1 for thermal plants to a low of 1.0/1 for the photovoltaic plant. The renewable energy plants required the highest environmental inputs per unit of output while fossil fuel plants required relatively small environmental inputs for cooling. Environmental loading was highest with thermal plants, although the photovoltaic plant was very high as a result of the electricity required for production of solar cells. Using an Emergy Sustainability Index, it was found that renewable energy source plants like hydroelectric, geothermal, and wind had higher sustainability compared to thermal plants.
Different strategies to deal with byproducts of production processes are also evaluated. Environmental services required to deal with byproducts of electricity production are defined and calculated. Then, the same approach is suggested for other production processes. Accounting for environmental services provides a way to evaluate the carrying capacity of the environment in relation to human dominated processes. The need of environmental services at different space-time scales translates into the need of a suitable support area for the process under study. When the evaluation is done in the larger scale of the economy, the approach provides an estimate of the amount of economic activity that can be supported by available area and environment.

Alden Bryant
Earth Regeneration Society
1442A Walnut Street, #57, Berkeley, California 94709 USA

Appeal to Reason and Common Experience, The Climate Is Changing Rapidly
Millions of people have suffered conditions this century beyond anything known in the past: from floods, monsoon changes, drought, heat, winds (example -- Guam had equal to or more than 236 miles per hour), tornadoes, hurricanes, freezing storms, record cold temperatures each year for 15 to 20 years, record snow storms, forest fires (China/Russia fire a few years ago, the greatest in known history) , landslides, avalanches, and increased volcanic action. Consider the weight of the increased ice masses in Greenland and the Antarctic, a destabilizing pressure on the earth leading to more volcanic action..
In the temperate zones we are caught in the middle of the hot and cold air masses impacting each other, with resultant changes in the ocean currents. Here is climate change! Let us put the overall system together, and act accordingly.
It is imperative that each country have forest and energy physical targets in order to make our best effort to stabilize climate before it is too late.
Expanded and improved forests are necessary to remove carbon dioxide (CO/2) from the world's atmosphere. Changes in energy technology are necessary to stop putting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The goal, for our lives, is to bring the world's CO/2 count back from around 370 parts per million (ppm) in the world's air mass now to around 290 ppm where it was near the beginning of the century.

Ecological sustainability through alternative energy
Helmut K. Burkhardt
Adjunct Professor of Physics
Ryerson Polytechnic University
350 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 2K3

Energy, or better ?nergy available in a given environment? i.e. ?nergy? is to societies what food is to individuals. It is that which causes and sustains motion or other action. Historically, the search for perpetual motion machines was as intense as the alchemists dream of making gold, or of finding the stone of wisdom. Today, we realize that ?making energy? is a pipe dream, but, that we can convert existing exergy in nature into forms that are useful for driving our technological civilization. Unfortunately, however, we also realize that the energy conversion processes used by today?s technology create undesirable waste, pollute our environment, exhausts fuel resources, and are not sustainable.
The fossil fuel based energy systems release vast amounts of pollutants that cause acid rain and global warming. The nuclear fueled terrestrial energy systems discharge radioactive wastes that are difficult to dispose of. Nuclear power installations are undesirable for other reasons. The high density of nuclear energy makes it dangerous. Nuclear power installations are vulnerable spots in a country. On top of that, peaceful nuclear power technology facilitates the production of nuclear weapons, and that is tempting additional power for politicians. Given the large and growing human world population, the fossil fuel and the nuclear fuel based energy systems are unsustainable and create a severe disturbancein the ecological, political, and social equilibrium on our planet.
It is maintained that renewable energy systems are desirable for many reasons. A global renewable energy system is demonstrated to be scientifically, technically and economically feasible. It is shown that the solar exergy income of the planet is sufficient to supply any reasonable level of world population for ever. Renewable energy systems are considered to be environmentally friendly, and less disturbing than the traditional energy systems of the planetary and local ecological equilibrium since their material waste can be recycled, and their thermal waste energy is part of the natural climate forming heat. The decentralized nature of the renewable energy and the absence of renewable energy related weapons technology is seen as favourable factor contributing to the political and social stability. In considering the full dimension of the complex energy issue, it is concluded that the new energy technology is locally and globally desirable, and that the time for large scale use of direct solar energy and other renewables has arrived.

Key Words: Energy, exergy, fossil energy, nuclear energy, renewable energy, feasibility, sustainablility, ecological and social equilibrium

Consolidation of Democratic System in the Bifurcation Process
Jong Heon Byeon
Department of Ethics Studies, Cheju National University of Education
4810, Whabuk 1 Dong, Cheju, 690-061 KOREA

The purpose of this research is to find out conditions that can consolidate democratic system during the bifurcating process of a political system. The political system as an open and living one, could be reached maximum entropy level according to the system's malfunctioning. Entropy within the political system, however, could also be decreased through the intake of negentropy from its environments. It means that the political system as a complex living one can encounter the critical point of choice. Just at this point, political system has a chance for favorable change of the system's state as well as a risk of the system breakdown.
In the course of the time, the system increasingly approaches near maximum entropy level. Then, the system could have a window of opportunity as well as a probable devolution. At the point of complex system theory, more democratic political system can decrease the level of entropy comparing to the authoritarian system. In such a transformation, it is necessary for the political system to attain room for negentropy production. It could be represented as temporarily functioning of dissipative structures, decreasing the entropy level and transforming themselves into more adaptive ones during this process. In the transition, it is significant to ensure the elite transformation, including elite settlement and elite convergence, and to establish the rules of competition for lowing the political entropy level. I think it could be possible only when the people who concerned know the newly emerging knowledge of bifurcation and perceive the situation in terms of holistic view.

Keywords: democratic system, bifurcation, entropy(negentropy), elite settlement, elite convergence


Eberhard W. Eckert
Dipl.-Ing DABEI
Independent Researcher, Merler Allee 70
53125 Bonn, Germany

Human history counts just some millions of years, a tiny fraction of that of hte universe and alos in relatin to our earth’s history. Our species appeared when the natural development had everything prepared for us. In the development process of mankind, structure of the society was rather a multitude of structures of local or regional societies, with some exceptions. But also large empires did not last for very long, due to the relatively long lasting times for information, reaction, transport, and power display. This changed when mankind started to increase, finally to multiply the individuals and the society energy: The fairy tale from the giants became true. The fairy tales report about good and bad giants. What makes the difference? It is the insight, the internal reflective control system, modesty, which finally decides whether the huge energy is used or not and for what purpose.
Energy, by physical definitin, is the potential to perform work, to achieve something. The seemingly “unlimited” availability pf energy started a process of inhumane acceleration, so the stream of human development converts its mainly laminar flow into turbulances - global turbulances.
The equilibrium of horror, the ultimate use of giant energies, has up to now prevented big obvious changes in out societied imposed externally. But “Essential things are invisible”, the dams are leaking, energy achieves something also from the inside.

Keywords: Energy, Development, Society

LEARNING TO BUILD A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY: it ought to be terrestrially, biologically, and humanely minded
(Elohim Jimenez-Lopez)
Schlossgasse 6/16, A 3512, Mautern a. d. Donau, Austria

It cannot be denied that the perspective engendered by the civilization’s trends has been arising from the outcome of human actions which have been determined in a large measure by intelligent reasoning that has aimed at improving particular aspects of the civilized way of life. At the same time these actions have been producing an increasing number of undesirable situations which generate the unsustainability of our civilized intentions. We might deal properly with such paradoxical situation if we organize, on our own, our individual and joint performances:
realizing explicitly that our civilized way of life cannot longer process, because its perspective has become unsustainable;
learning to grasp well the kind of side effects that arise from technological achievements and how these effects emerged and grow;
searching to reduce the possibility of a catastrophic crisis to happen, caused by an increasing number of unsustainable situations;
learning to develop on our own ecological, ethological and ethical criteria in order to improve the Gaia’s health, to push ahead the evolvement of biological & cultural diversity, which presumably will increase the survival chances of our species;
learning to sustain nature and create the circumstances needed for building a green, blue, & humane economy, bearing in mind we have inherited an enormous load of deeply rooted utilitarian tradition;
finding out feasible options through suitable methodologies , such as a renewed Systems and Cybernetic Thinking for dealing explicitly with ethical, ecological and ethological values as framework for allowing the emergence and evolvement of autonomous communities, which using explicitly cybernetic interactions (feedbacks) may help everyone :finding a way forward (searching on its own to be) both capable of learning from the effects of its own actions and then acting on the insights so gained: [John Raven, 1995]
However to cope with tasks of this kind it is indispensable first of all to grasp well why and how the Human, Biological, Ecological, Technological and Educational worlds (structural circumstances which rather paradoxically have made possible the emergence & evolvement of our magnificent civilization) tend to be increasingly unsustainable.
The Human World: Source of psychological, social and cultural troubles caused by unethical and unecological performances of the “modern human animal” increasingly alienated, after being “confined in the unnatural conditions of captivity” his own brainy a huge restless menagerie...the city...a human zoo” [Desmond Morris], trying to survive but passively after being increasingly fascinated by unbelievable technologies and financial and economic business.
The Biological World: Nature increasingly disrupted by investments implemented by decision makers who consider themselves the owners of everything ‘discovered’ by them on the planet aiming consequently to take advantage unilaterally of anything located in their surroundings for making possible human ambitions to evolve supported by utilitarian feelings derived from the assumption that nature will sustain man always, without recognizing that due to such intentions the number of threatened and endangered (T&E) species is growing very fast caused by an indiscriminate destruction of their critical habitat.
The Ecological World: Gaia seriously trouble by the impact of inconvenient human activities conceived and implemented for allowing some human beings to accomplish immediate selfish goals, which are putting at risk the essential features of its peculiar atmosphere. Agriculture, devastation of forests, overgrazing, construction of roads, industrial and urban waste, roads traffic,... causing soil, water and air degradation, and deterioration of the earthly atmosphere cannot longer be simply sustained for accomplishing efficiently competitive economic and financial aims. Neither can be sustained huge touristic, agricultural and farming projects conceived by means of very ‘modern’ standards which do not recognize the existence of indigenous and poor people, and many other living species.
The Technological World: Many troubling sources of our civilization due to the increasing fascination generated by the spledour of unbelievable technological achievement, which seems to bewitch people who consider themselves as something lacking power, strength, ability, etc. Such fascination and economic and financial interests are causing: 1) degradation of cultural values because people believe in the ‘immense power’ that such facilities can possess, acquire and even develop on their own; 2) Retrogression of human relations among individuals, ethnical and social groups, and nations,... due to an homogenization conceived, designed & implemented by means of facilities introduced indiscriminately in public & private organizations under the assumption that everything in society will be more effective, reliable & efficient, and of course less expensive, when everybody involved behaves and performs exactly to universal norms; 30 Deterioration of natural environments due to the extended and indiscriminated utilization of devices and processes that will assure more efficient and even exhaustive exploration of natural resources, because most people believe strongly in the ancient conjecture that Nature can always ‘take care automatically’ of its own recuperation, after being altered by technological actions of any kind and dimension.
The Educational World: Processes conceived according to rather inconsistent assumptions:
1)most human beings are no more that (human) resources, necessary as objects for the accomplishment of (economic, organizational, destructive, competitive,...) intentions of few leaders, rulers, decision makers,...;
2)the human concerns must be tackled as endeavors leading towards ideal perspectives determined by means of simple extrapolations derived from or reinforcing traditional (primitive) beliefs;
3)ideals will be necessarily well and totally accomplished if everything is taken into account, by means of systems thinking, holistic approaches, total quality and productivity intentions or any other methodology for the wholeness;
4)unexpected and uncertain side effects that arrive necessarily from all human actions can be neglected and even ignored till they are properly identified because it is supposed that there problematic consequences can or should be tackled afterwards;
5)every problem that may arise will be solved ‘automatically’ by more technologies ‘scientifically’ developed;
6)the future of human kind ought to be a continuation of the history of humankind which, willingly or not, is in a large measure the outcome of ‘actions’ conceived for making possible the development of selfish competences among powerful specimens followed by masses claiming to have the right to be considered, at least, human beings.

Energy Accounting - A Step Towards Sustainability
Jan Emblemsvåg and Bert Bras
Systems Realization Laboratory
The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332-0405, USA

After the oil embargo in 1973, the world realized how important a steady energy supply is. Energy studies were conducted, but after the initial shock of the oil embargo the interest in energy analyses gradually declined. Today, it is only a minor part of the conventional Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. We believe it is time to revive the energy studies, and in this paper we launch the idea of Energy Accounting equally to monetary accounting with basically the same General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). We are convinced that Energy Accounting can force the marketplace - organizations and end-users - towards higher energy efficiency and thereby towards less relative pollution. There are two major reasons for that: The importance of energy in socio-economic and consequently sustainable development and the strong correlation between energy consumption and pollution. Energy Accounting will most likely also give an economic return, however, this is not the focus of this paper. Then, environmental efforts can concentrate on issues which are not related to energy consumption, such as toxicity, and leave the general pollution prevention to be handled in the marketplace by Energy Accounting and an energy taxation system. If Energy Accounting was established, at least in the industrialized world, the energy assessments would be developed by the market itself and the incentive to use them would be along the lines of having cost management systems today. In our opinion, this is in sharp contrast to the ad hoc LCA methodology developed by e.g. ISO. In this paper, we therefore present a conceptual design Energy Accounting and energy taxation that, in our opinion, would be an important step towards sustainability.

Keywords: Energy Accounting, GAAP, energy taxation and sustainability.

The Flaw in the Definition of a Liability
Dr. Thomas G. Evans, Professor
Dr. Charles Kelliher, Associate Professor
School of-Accounting, University of Central Florida
PO Box 161400, Orlando, FL 32816

This paper identifies a major flaw in the FASB's definition of a liability in SFAC 6. The definition of the elements (assets, liabilities, equities, etc.) is an important part of the Conceptual Framework. These definitions are used by the FASB to structure debate on accounting issues and represent the “building blocks" with which financial statements are assembled.
The flaw relates to the definition's narrow requirement that liabilities be settled with assets or services. Our concern is that the current financial reporting market is one of rapid developments in the design and implementation of hybrid financial securities and complex financial instruments. These create situations in which a firm is legally obligated to settle debts without using their assets. For example, a firm may acquire services and be obligated to settle the obligation with their stock or other securities. In this situation, although the firm is obligated, no liability would be shown according to the FASB's definition. The paper analyzes such situations and proposes a solution that involves expanding the definition to include “other resources." This remedy would make the definition in step with current and future developments in financial markets and enhance the usefulness of the Conceptual Framework.
For example, how do you account for the following situation? Suppose an venture-investor was approached at the beginning of a year by a recently organized firm (MLC Corporation) that was in the process of developing a new software product. The investor recognized the risky nature of the business and was willing to invest $1,000 as a one-year loan, with annual interest at 12%. The loan was made and the firm signed a note payable. However, the note states that the loan will be settled by the issuance of 1,120 shares of the firm's own authorized but unissued $1 par value common stock (the market value of the stock at the beginning of the year was $1).



Emergence: Its Characteristics and Limits
G.L. Farre
Gveorgetown University
Washington DC 20057-1133

The implications of the stratification of interactions in energy levels discovered in the last few decades, have not been fully grasped outside of the physics community, despite the fact that they have to do with the fundamental theory of matter. Yet, the existence of energy gap of varying widths between strata is of supreme significance because of the hierarchical complexity of natural systems.
The existence of natural hierarchies bespeaks of processes of energy transformation that are unlike the interactions between systems confined within the same stratum, which leave observable traces. Two of these energy gaps, which play a particularly significant role in the emergence of complex systems, are referred in the technical literature as Cuts. The Cartesian Cut, which separates mind from its quantal substrate, is constitutive of observations. The Heisenberg Cut separates a natural system's objectual characteristics from its internal dynamical r_gime. These characteristics, which are endogeneous to the system, define the kinds of interactions it can enter into in its surround, while its internal r_gime is what enables it to be thus interactive.
A number of interesting problems have their roots in the manner these two types of processes of energy transformations are synchronised in hierarchisation. The chief one is that of representing, in a scientifically respectable way, the processes which bridge the gaps between strata and are primarily responsible for the emergence of natural systems, hence for their hierarchisation. A representation is scientifically respectable in this sense if it is
mathematically perspicuous, i.e. it serves the function of the fundamental theory which underlies such processes, as well as satisfies stringent criteria in the observation of their effects, given that these processes leave no observable interticial traces.
Another problem of great interest in the context of the hierarchisation of matter is the emergence of mind in natural systems. This problem is unusually recalcitrant, for the reason that neither the Cartesian Cut nor the Heisenberg Cut are operative here, all interactions being internal to the sytem {observer, observed}, which is non-existent in this case. The same can be said, mutatis mutandis, of all systems in which the observer is an internal actor, e.g. social systems. This should not be construed as denying the objectivity of the sciences of matter (physics, chemistry, biology), in which both Cuts are operative.
Based on these considerations, a case will be made for the view that biological and social systems differ in radical ways that rule out the possibility of using similar strategies to model them. They belong not just to different strata, but to different eras of cosmic evolution. And while scientific discourse is clearly used in biology (leaving aside much of what is called "theoretical biology"), it is inapplicable to the case of social systems.

‘Pie in the Sky’: A System Dynamics Perspective of Sustainability
Willard R. Fey and Ann C. Wimberly Lam
Georgia Institute of Technology

Exponential growth in world population, energy generation, production, pollution, and world-threatening destructive power has focused attention on the earth system and ways to insure its survival in the long-term. Many fear that this growth will result in future crises such as the disintegration of the ozone layer, global warming, mass starvation, resource exhaustion, massive species extinctions, environmental destruction, and global terrorism and war. The quest is for a formula for “sustainability.” Most believe that the solution lies in the continued growth of technology, the regulatory policies of governments, and/or automatic corrections inherent in the world economic system. Reasons are presented why technology, economic adjustments and regulatory policies will not solve the problems; and why evolutionary human instinctual imperatives energize the complex, interdependent, feedback control structures in today’s technological world society which produce the observed unsustainable growth. World human consumption growth, the force that drives environmental deterioration, is caused by population growth, technology growth, economic growth, government policies and human expectations and instincts. To save the Earth, human consumption growth must stop. Therefore, attaining sustainability is a human behavioral problem.

Keywords: system dynamics, exponential growth, technology, world modeling , environment


Charles Francois
GESI (ISSS Argentine National Division)
Libertad 742, 1640 B. Aires, Argentina

Sustainable development depends basically on a stable carrying capacity of the supporting ecosystem. This in turn depends to a large extent on the nature of the technical level of the concerned human group. A short African example will be given.
Historically, this level has been evolving in a progressively accelerating way, allowing for an ever more massive use of natural resources, renewable or not. Moreover a general trend toward wider geographically embracing human ecosystems in concordance with technical progress is obvious. The global planetary system is now in the making.
Accordingly, we need ways and means to evaluate as best as possible the global and local limits to quantitative development and altogether the possibilities for a more conservative type of development. This includes necessarily an inquiry about the urgent need for a transition from generally plundering techniques of exploitation of shrinking resources (including sinks!) to more stabilizing and renovative techniques. Systemic models related to various modes of growth, dissipative structuration and emergence of higher levels of complexity, the onset of dynamic stability in correlation with Eigen-behavior (or autopoiesis), followed by possible uncompensated positive feedback, runaway processes, critical states, instability thresholds, crashes and collapses or, on the contrary tolerable cyclomorphic oscillations and self reproduction in metastable systems could certainly be adapted to such inquiry.
Examples, suggestions, and conjectures will be proposed.
Toward a PROMISE OF TOMORROW Using Interconnecting Theory to Re-connect
Charles Francois
Editor, International Enclyclopedia of Cybernetics and Systemics

It is generally agreed that the systems movement has not penetrated other fields as much as we had dreamed. Charles Francois, Editor of the International Enclyclopedia of Cybernetics and Systemics, presents a Target Paper B for the Primer Group reflecting on our shortcomings. The specialist syndrome, incomplete knowledge of systemic implications, and selective usage of systemic principles all contribute to a general apathy toward interdisciplinary and wholismic principles. But, as Charles points out, "We eventually need all of them."

But Charles also brings us a Promise of Tomorrow, proposing, an cooperative inquiry into interconnectedness at all levels. An outline of the new Connecting Theory as well as the more general Relationship Theory, will be presented as Target Paper C during an ISSS electronic seminar following the Atlanta Meeting.

Keywords: Connection, Systemic, Relationship, Connecting Theory, Relationship Theory


Living Systems: A Study of its Philosophical Background
Tage Frandberg
Hostvagen 1 S-169 31 Solna, Sweden

James Grier Miller begins his preface to Living Systems by quoting from Alfred N. Whitehead's Science and the Modern World, and concludes his book with a quotation from Whitehead's Process and Reality. Each actual entity is itself only describable as an organic process. It repeats in microcosm what the universe is in macrocosm. It is a process proceeding from phase to phase, each phase being the real basis from which its successor proceeds.
This philosophical background to Living Systems is studied, as well as concepts, such as systems, organism, subjectivism, objectivism, process etc.
Reference literature which mentioned in the preface is studied, together with literature subsequently published by Whitehead, and also a selection of the extensive literature which in later years has dealt with Whitehead's philosophy.
The intention is to give grounds for a discussion with those who base their systems thinking on other points of view/points of departure. The discussion of general considerations and approaches facilitates the understanding of what is common, and what differs in different kinds of systems thinking.

Business-Driven Sustainable Development by "Back-casting" from First Order Sustainability Principles
Gil Friend
Gil Friend and Associates, 48 Shattuck Square #103
Berkeley CA 94704
John Holmberg
Department of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology and Goteborg University, S-41296, Goteborg, Sweden
Karl-Henrik Robèrt
The Natural Step, Wallinsgatan 22
111 24 Stockholm, Sweden,

"Sustainability" -- while a compelling vision -- is all too often a vague one. The Brundtland definition, for example, provides a philosophical context but does not provide a concrete guide for investment decisions.
In this paper we present a management framework is needed that:
• provides broad understanding of principles of sustainability that "make sense" and provide useful guidance regardless of one's economic or political position or perspective;
• transcends ultimately irreconcilable controversies over both ideology and "acceptable thresholds" of damage;
• offers pragmatic guidance for both fundamental business strategy and specific investment decisions;
• enables rigorous evaluation of "sustainability vectors";
• contributes to both short term and long term financial performance, competitive advantage, and other business goals
These "first order" principles for sustainability make it possible to ask if each measure (investment) brings us closer to sustainability and if each measure taken is a flexible platform for the next step towards fulfillment of the first order principles?
We also present a method for strategic planning towards sustainability that is based on back-casting: future desired conditions of sustainability are specified, steps are then defined backward in time from the goal to attain those conditions, rather than to take steps that are merely a continuum of present trends extrapolated into the future.
The paper also includes practical results from the use of the tool within several large manufacturing companies.
This approach provides a superior approach in planning in relation to traditional forecasting, particularly when:
· the problem to be studied is complex,
· there is a need for major change,
· dominant trends are part of the problem,
· the problem to a great extent is a matter of externalities and
· the scope is wide enough and the time horizon long enough to leave considerable room for deliberate choice.

Younger Bear Clan, Cayuga Nation, Six Nations Confederacy,
residing at Six Nations Grand River Territory

This paper is an attempt to show that Science and Spirituality can coexist and that their combined influences, within a proper context, could result in producing the best of all possible worlds.
My own beliefs are rooted in the Iroquoian Longhouse tradition. Over the years I have met traditional Native people from many parts of North America. During our discussions I have noticed two common threads running through our traditional Native belief systems. One thing we share is the concept of Thanksgiving. The other lies in the essential sameness of our different prophecies. Since I am not free to divulge the content of our prophecies I will concentrate on the Thanksgiving.
In our Longhouse we practice an annual round of Thanksgiving ceremonies which are thousands of years old. When our first sacred messenger brought us these ceremonies he also told us that there is a Creator; that our Creator wishes acknowledgement from us in the form of Thanksgiving; that we should use a Good Mind toward others and that true "success" is for us to be reunited with our Creator.
Though a simple concept, when the Thanksgiving is fully practised it branches into many implications:
1. When we acknowledge a Creator we are admitting we did not create ourselves. We are also admitting we are related to all fellow creatures through a common Creator.
2. Since our lives are primarily gifts, we cannot take credit for any of our strengths or talents. To take credit for these gifts would be a form of plagiarism.
3. Any exceptional gifts we have should be shared as we share all things. Our Earth is like a table and we are a family around it. We should all have a chance to share in the meal.
4. There can be no "Private Property". All things should be as air and water; things that all can share but none can "own".
5. Since we were promised enough we live and give thanks day by day and take only what we need.
6. We cannot shun others because of their appearance. Our Creator has seen fit to allow differences.
7. Our practice of sharing must extend to the "new faces" who are on their way. They will have their own needs. This precludes consumerism and the depletion of resources which it causes.
8. We know tomorrow's people should also have a clean place. This precludes such things as pollution and nuclear devastation.
9. Truly thankful people will know when they have enough. As a result their minds will be at peace and they will not be tormented by greed for more than they need or more than their neighbour has.
10. Our life is a privilege, a gift we should value and respect, and because it is a gift we should not resent our demise.
These are a few views that result from the practice of the Thanksgiving. Their relevance to modern society should be obvious.

Keywords: Spirituality, Thanksgiving, Role of Science, Longhouse, Industrial Civilization

Savvas D. Georgiades
Florida International University
2800 N.E. 147th st., Apt # 154, N. Miami, FL 33181

Child Protective Services (CPS) are synthesized using General Systems ideas and applicable theoretical frameworks, as identified in the child welfare literature. The purpose of the paper is to lay out a conceptual change model that can benefit current CPS case workers and supervisors in their professional practice. The applied methodology resembles in many ways Checkland’s (1981) soft systems methodology, which basically calls for a systematic comparison between ‘the real’ and ‘the conceptual’, whenever organizational change is deliberated by managerial staff and administration. To elaborate on the complexity and multi-dimensionality of CPS system’s operations, a pathological CPS model is formulated using clients, direct service staff and CPS supervision as the major units of analysis. Organizational CPS pathology is delineated with consideration to three disparate dimensions of dysfunctional CPS system operations : pathological supervision, intergenerational and work-related staff partialities and turbulence in the practice field. With a considerable amount of feedback resulting from the pathological model, a change model is initiated to help extract the CPS system from its current failures to explicate family preservationistic philosophy and practice. Humanistic supervision, staff development in the areas of self-awareness, cultural responsiveness and client-based practice, lobbying and child advocacy are considered central in optimal future change efforts. It is suggested that recommended changes in the organizational CPS culture can give genesis to disparate feedback loops within the CPS system that can motivate and perpetuate family preservationistic philosophy and practice, both in the direct service as well as the administrative field. The ultimate beneficiaries of such innovations will be the recipients of CPS services, who are unjustly disempowered by current dissenting and multifarious feedback-related, CPS systemic complications. Conclusively, it is recommended that collective search conferences and assertive staff self-evaluations can serve as practical implementation tools to support the application and sustenance of conceptual change in the CPS practice field. It is also suggested that the efficacy of the conceptual model be evaluated by outcome research, concentrating specifically upon the observed benefits of the proposed model for diverse CPS system operations and more importantly, on the benefits and repercussions of recommended changes for clients’ rehabilitation endeavors.

Keywords: Organizational Pathology, Systemic Change, Child Protective Services, Family Preservation Practice


Systems Thinking and Human Values: Towards Understanding the Chaos in
Martin L.W. Hall, M.S. Cyb.Sys., PhD.
University of Lincolnshire and Humberside
Values Technology
2924 Conifer Court
Napa, CA 94558-5876 USA

This paper looks at how human values measurement and systems thinking principles can become a part of a sociocybernetic system for understanding chaos in organizations. Tools and methodologies will be examined to see how they might be used to help make sense out of the complexity in the modern organization. Core issues include such elements as decision-making, organizational culture and the usefulness of effective values measurement techniques and their applicability in a sociocybernetic framework.
Links will be made between values and organizational structure and process. Discussion will be centered around how to specifically and practically use both individual and organizational values to transform organizations toward a more effective and efficient reality.
The Influences of Behavioural Skills on Performance Management and its implications for businesses today
Lara Hamchaoui, Dr. Lawrence Reavill, and Dr. Sionade Robinson
Department of Management Systems and Information
City University Business School
Northampton Square
London EC1V 0HB

Human Resource Management has had to re-vitalise its strategies and philosophies in light of the increasing changes in customer demands and their impact on organisation strategy. The level of employee skill has had to increase dramatically to cope and manage with customer requirements. The expansion of the service industry has meant more focus on the service that company’s provide, this in turn puts more onus on the employee who provides the service.
This paper will examine why and how Human Resource Management has had to evolve into managing the performance of employees rather than just their outputs and consequently try to influence the level of competence of an employee in performing at an acceptable level. This from a systems point of view introduces several elements that may influence the success or failure of this competency approach. Thus, this paper seeks to address these elements and discuss their impact on Human Resource Management and organisations today and in the future.

Key Words: Employee Development, Hierarchy, Control, Competency, Communication

Historical Perspectives on the ISSS: Concluding Reflections
Debora Hammond
PO Boc 457
Glen Elen, California 95442

In this paper, I would like to discuss some of the conclusions of my dissertation thesis, "Toward a Science of Synthesis: The Heritage of General Systems Theory," completed in May 1997 (finally!). My discussion will draw from a paper I presented at the biennial conference of the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology in July 1997, entitled "The Use of Biological Metaphor in the Behavioral Sciences: Society as Organism, Ecosystem, or Irreducible Emergent." In addition, I will address material from chapters nine and ten of my dissertation, in which I briefly outline what I consider to be some of the critical developments in the evolution of the Society for General Systems Research, from its inception in 1954. My inquiry focuses primarily on the social implications of systems thought, particularly in response to such critiques as Robert Lilienfeld's (1974) that systems theory is nothing more than technocratic ideology. In contrast, I suggest that certain strands of systems thought support much more participatory and inclusive models of social organization.

Small-scale vegetation in controlled environments to investigate emergence in far-from-equilibrium ecosystem thermodynamics
T. Havlicek
University of Wisconsin-Madison
T.F.H Allen
University of Wisconsin-Madison
J. Norman
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Moving from leaves to kilometers of remotely sensed vegetation interposes many emergent levels. By investigating emergence and its positive feedbacks per se, we facilitate observation and manipulation of large scale vegetation systems.
Controlled experiments were performed to test an emerging paradigm of ecosystem thermodynamics which states that more mature and complex ecosystems have more elaborate structure and pathways which dissipate the gradient from the warm planet surface to cool outer space. The purpose was to test experimentally the capacity of simple and increasingly complex contrived Arabidopsis and Glysine max (soybean) vegetation to dissipate energy through the latent heat of vaporization when exposed to energy gradients. We grew the vegetation in 2x3x4 ft wind tunnels to control for wind regime effects on the vegetation, and to introduce morphological and physiological differences to the contrived vegetation stands. This enabled us to increase canopy complexity while holding geneticfactors constant. We also introduced complexity to the canopy architecture by mixing different genotypes and species within the contrived stands. We measured energy degradation capabilities by evapotransipiration rates and thermal infrared canopy surface temperature of the different vegetation stands. Positive results should show that more complex vegetation stands that embody far-from-equilibrium structures emit less radiant energy because of their increased energy degradation capabilities. Thus they should have a cooler surface temperature, via increased levels of evapotranspiration and other pathways.

David l. Hawk, Professor
School of Management
New Jersey Institute of Technology
University Heights, Newark, NJ

The paper’s contents will address an underlying problem of early GST, and then trace how the implications of that early dilemma have passed off into a wide range of socio-economic endeavors. The results are problematic for the endeavors, and damaging to the credibility of much of what was profound and beneficial in systems theory.
The dilemma is the entropy concept and how it was presented in early systems theory. Early developers of the systems perspective used entropy in a way that does not stand up to close scrutiny. They took the concept from its use in the more pessimistic world of energy/material based phenomena, and pushed it into the metaphysical world where the rules were ambiguous. From the new platform they argued how in some spheres of thought entropy could be managed, and sometimes even reversed. A logical framework was construction as to how the operations of the metaphysical world were not subject to restrictions associated with processes of decay and disorder as clearly experienced in the physical world.
The dilemma began when other GST pioneers then shifted the framework towards general living systems in order to argue that life forces, including information systems, were in opposition to entropy processes. Some of the followers of GST then expanded the logic to include the social realm and all that it did. A few even re-entered the real of energy/matter to argue that socio-economic and scientific processes could stand up to, perhaps even defeat, entropic decay.
As systems theorists give their interpretation of sustainability, and they should formulate one, there needs to be a resolution of the early dilemma posed by the GST approach to entropy. Definitions of sustainability change dramatically depending on how entropy is defined, delimited or denied. Other areas of science have demonstrating that the entropy process is clearly not to be denied.
In 1981, an IBM researcher, Charles Bennett, resolved Maxwell’s problem by showing how a perfectly efficient engine was impossible not just in fact, but also in principle. He showed how even Maxwell’s “demon” must expend energy in the process of becoming sustainable via “saving” energy. The “demon” must forget each transaction prior to the next encounter. Rolf Landauer had demonstrated some years before that the only steps in computation that necessarily produce waste heat are erasures of information. One caveat remained, Bennett’s proof relied on classical physics thus there remained a shadow of doubt relative to entropy’s operations in the realm of quantum mechanics, and then in statistical thermodynamics.
In a 1997 Physical Review article by Seth Lloyd of MIT it is shown that in the wholly quantum world the “demon” is even less efficient than he was in the classical world. Outside systems theory the issue is now settled. The contents of the paper will argue that GST needs to reconsider its long-standing approach to entropy in light of what is known from other sciences. this especially important prior to it dealing with issues like what is and can be truly “sustainability” in what humans produce, consume, and do.
Aspects of a major research innovation of EPA will be presented to support the thesis of the paper. The research involves non-regulatory means to change human behavior. The key problem in the EPA project is that via certain conceptual arguments about entropy the participants, who are the producers and not consumers, avoid changing their processes to provide consumers with greater product efficiencies.

Human Values in Technology
M. Hebel
University of Greenwich
School of Business and Management, Woolwich Campus
Riverside House, Beresford Street, London, SE18 6BU, UK

This paper takes a phenomomenological approach to the requirements of matching technology to organisational needs. It suggests that in order to achieve a good match it is necessary to harmonise the values embodied in both areas. It is based on research into the issues surrounding performance measurement which was found to contain many conceptual parallels and shared technology. The soft systems analysis places human values theory in the context of systems thinking, where values are taken as system components, their groupings as systems and the expectations and behaviours produced by the sytem as emergence. The paper goes on to discuss the interaction of value systems and their synergistic qualities of world-views which inevitably impact on the introduction of new technology or its application.

Amy E. Herrmann, David W. Rosen, Kenneth Escoe,
Valerie Maier-Speredelozzi, and Janet K. Allen
The Systems Realization Laboratory
The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405

The separation, both conceptually and geographically, of design and manufacturing activities is becoming more and more prevalent in industry. With this separation, the “over-the-wall” mentality, where design and manufacture iterate until a manufacturable product is developed, is inevitable. This type of iteration requires excessive travel and expense to maintain communications between design and manufacture, meaning that the overall manufacturing enterprise is becoming less and less sustainable. In order to counteract this, we propose a distinct separation of design and manufacture, which takes place earlier in the design process. This means that design activities will encompass the act of determining design intent, possible design configurations, and overall dimensions. That design intent is then conveyed to the Design for Manufacture design phase, where the embodiment of the design is developed. This detail design of the artifact, as well as the manufacture of the product becomes the responsibility of manufacturing professionals, who take on the design responsibilities of the Design for Manufacture phase. However, there is one problem with this scenario. That problem is: How do we convey design intent, possible design configurations, and overall dimensions of a product and ensure that they are maintained?
In this case, we will be exploring this question in the context of Rapid Tooling. Rapid Tooling is the process by which Rapid Prototyping Technologies are used to develop tools for the fabrication of products. We are specifically interested in investigating the Rapid Tooling of injection molds, or the development of injection molds use Rapid Prototyping technologies.
The answer to the above question lies in the development of automated tools which the designer may use to design an artifact. If the designer is able to convey the design intent, possible design configurations, and overall dimensions through the use of a CAD model, the designer may then use an automated system to modify the existing model and choose resources to build the product and the tools necessary to fabricate that product without sacrificing design intent. The proposed automated system includes an extensive database of manufacturing processes, materials and heuristics. Using these databases, the designer may include manufacturing considerations in the design. With the aid of these automated tools, the iteration between design and manufacture is eliminated, making the system more sustainable.
In order to achieve this system of automated design tools, a set of manufacturing resources must be compiled. The specifications of these resources are not necessarily represented by definite, crisp numbers. Often, these specifications are presented as ranges. This means that when selecting the appropriate resources, some uncertainty will exist. Through the representation of this uncertainty in the final resource selection, a more informed decision may be made as to the appropriate choice of resources. In this paper, we describe a method for modeling uncertainty using fuzzy sets and using a selection method, namely the Selection Decision Support Problem, to determine the most feasible resources for use in the manufacture of a specified product.

Keywords: Sustainability, Decision-Based Design, Decision Support Problem (DSP), Fuzzy Logic, Rapid

a systems approach to Business Ethics: a discussion paper
Enrique G. Herrscher
Graduate School of Business Administration
Institute for Corporate and Entrepreneural Development
Mnens 1850, (1094) Buenos Aires, Agentina

This paper will explore present issues related to Business Ethics as referred to actual behavior of social actors involved, its causes and consequences arising from and with impact on the local, national and globalized context.
Certain basic principles will be studied, certain action - oriented alternatives will be analyzed, and certain criteria for teaching Business Ethics from a systemic viewpoint in higher education will be developed.
Certain specific issues will be dealt with, such as:
1.Ethical purpose and ethical action
2.Ethics by abiding by the law and ethics by going beyond the call of law
3.Ethical action and creation of a context for ethical action
4.Ethics as object of motivation and ethics as object of control
5.Ethical performance by persons and ethical performance by organizations
6.Ethics in processes and ethics in results
7.Ethics and Quality
8.Ethics compared with others (“ethics benchmarking”) and ethics compared in time (“ethics dynamics”)
9.Ethics of employees and ethics of their bosses
10.Ethics protecting property and ethics protecting life
A symposium to discuss this type of issues is suggested, in lieu of a paper session. This and other related papers would be used as a discussion guideline.
Entropy, Infinity, and God - the universe and beyond
Daniel Hershey
Professor of Chemical Engineering
Mail Location #0171, University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0171 USA

A discussion of the second law of thermodynamics will introduce the concept of Entropy and the consequences of increasing Entropy, for aging, evolving systems. Entropy, as a measure of order and disorder, tells us much about birth, aging, and death. Death is when we achieve maximum disorder (maximum Entropy). Entropy also indicates the direction of time’s arrow.
The theory of the big bang birth of our universe leads to questions concerning the history, evolution, and dimensions of our universe. This yields thoughts of what is “beyond” out universe and raises questions, such as what does “beyond” mean. This is the prelude for thinking the largest question: The meaning and conceptualization of Infinity. Infinity is the grandest of concepts, without limits, without boundaries, beyond our imagination. No discussion of Infinity can ignore the concept of God, and God’s relationship to Infinity. God, as a concept, is also beyond limits.
These three ideas, Entropy, Infinity, and God are examined together. The aim is to show how they merge, and to try to understand our existence, the birth of our universe, the presence of God, and the question: What is “beyond” our universe.

Six parameters for restructuring a corporation: A case history
Daniel Hershey
Professor of Chemical Engineering
Mail Location #0171, University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0171 USA

This is a paradigm for restructing and re-engineering a corporation. Cities, corporations, and civilizations are aging, evolving systems, experiencing birth, life, aging, and death. They are affected by size, structure, stability, and senescence.
Six parameters are identified which describe the efficiency of a organization’s structure. These are: (1) overlapping activities; (2) the geometry of the table of organization; (3) interactions which by-pass the bosses; (4) the center of gravity of power; (5) the distribution of power; and (6) informational entropy (the efficiency of information flow).
We will describe how the first five parameters affect the sixth, informational entropy. For example, high entropy is associated with high disorder and overlapping activities. A more vertical structure also yields high entropy. Interactions which bypass the bosses distort information flow and raise entropy. having the center of gravity of power near the top of the organization creates an ease of information flow and less disorder and lowered entropy. Making everyone equal, i.e., having all units in the organization equivalent in power and independence is prescription for disaster and high entropy. A case history will be presented.

Homicidal Pre-Teens Do Not Come From Mars
Dr. Sylvia Herz
Clinical Psychologist, Diplomate American Board of Family Psychology; Fellow American Psychological Association
1201 South Ocean Dr. Apt. #905
South Hollywood, FL. 33019

The nation was shocked at the news that two pre-teen boys, ages 11 and 13, opened fire in a pre-arranged fire drill at a middle-school in Jonesboro, Arkansas. Besides four girls and one teacher dead, there were ten others wounded. Not too long ago other killings by youngsters in Mississippi and Kentucky similarly stunned us. The latest open-fire school shooting on May 21 of this year by a 15-year-old in Springfield, Oregon killed his parents at home, two students at school with 22 other students wounded. These incidents are a wake-up call for societal action.
No, these young kids did not come from another planet and suddenly descended upon us. Indeed, we produced them. These horrific episodes should serve as a wake-up call to all of us, individually and collectively. What kind of society created these so-called “young monsters”? Surely, they were molded by us - their parents, their schools, their communities and everyone and everything that touched their young lives. Yes, television, movies, cartoons, “gangsta rap” and heavy metal music all played a part. Not only is the entire culture more violent but there exist less civility, less graciousness, less politeness, less kindness and caring, and less “humanly correct” conduct in our personal relationships.
The forces at work are complex and need to be understood since they are crucially interrelated. To sum it up, we all live in a violent society where hostility and overt aggression toward others are all too common and from which our children learn. They are “our children” after all. Infants are not born “bad” nor violent. Children learn this behavior on a day-to-day basis by how they perceive others react to any event and how they are treated at home, at school, in the playground by other kids, by the media, and by all occurrences that ever touched them. Certainly, dysfunctional families are a root cause.
We need to take action. We need community speak-outs, town meetings, school forums, TV panels and other forms of airing our overall violence problem with its varied components. We Americans know how to air an issue, with a multitude of media exposure, and we know how to pound it to death - weeks, months, years, for as long as it takes. Let’s get started. All our lives are at stake and our children are crying out for help.


Dr. Alexander Herzog
Kolbermoorer Str. 60/1
D-83043 Bad Aibling

After decades of tremendous progress today’s medicine is encountring limits, which have no longer anything to do with medical practice in the sense of the hippocritical oath. Those times are past when the doctor could help the patient with simple advice and remedies. Today our medicine is embedded in a complex correlation with various hierarchical systems. Right on top is the wish of the patient to be healed and the doctor who should fulfil this wish to the best of his knowldge and belief. In the doctor’s decision over a correct therapy there are still other aspects which determine his procedure with regard to the treatment. These are: the financial management of the practice, the scientificand official medical teaching, the social-and health policy, consideration of costs and profit, health insurances and last but not least also the personal integrity of the doctor, ethical and moral aspects.
Modern medicine is technically becoming more and more expensive, the resources however fewer and fewer, so that a constantly rising density of doctors is leading to a struggle for few resources between doctors, the pharmaindustry and manufacturers of equipment. The laws of marketing such as supply, demand and financing are ruling in public health.
In spite of the achievments of modern scientific and technical medicine, patients are feeling this medicine to be inhuman. They are complaining about an apparatus medicine and are looking for a treatment in totality taking into consideration also unconventional methods. Essential for the owner of a practice is the managerially and economically efficient planning of the practice. The aim is to attract patients and to offer profitable activities.
In the medical University reality is determined by the possibilityof getting on fast in the medical profession. Struggling for power and recognition and not least for survival at the University are determinging goal and direction of medical research and with that the kink of medicine practised at University. Through clever sponsoring industry is assisting in finding the direction.
Politics too is playing an important role in today’s medicine. Which ambitious goals like optimal health provision for everybody, the question of how to finance it becomes increasingly prominent.
Steeply rising costs coupled with dwindling financial resources have for a long timne made health politicians think aloud about a reduction of medicine to a basic provision excluding more recent and expensive treatments. Even highly explosive questions whether for instance it is meaningful to offer a patient a treatment which is costing more than he or she can ever earn in his or her lifetime are publicly discussed.
The health insurances want to determine which treatments are useful and can be paid for and which are not.
In specialized medical fields doctors are not showing an openess to a complete and complicated system as a human being but a dogmatic singletrack mind depending on the school they graduated from. Those thinking differently are looked upon with suspiscion. Fundamentalists of all trends bedevil the opposite party and would like to have them outlawed.
In this conflict of various interest-groups one increasingly tries to make a more productive coordination possible through cybernetic ways of thinking. Cybernetic systems of theories are excellently suitable for building and planning a health system which can be paid for and whcih has a safe future.
However, where in cybernetic systems can one find the human values of medicine which have been formulated quite clearly as medical virtues already 2400 years ago by Hippocrates? Serve exclusively the advantage of the patient
* Never harm the patient
* be honest
* be incorruptible be humble and confine yourself to your competence and to your actual know-how
* do not kill, not even at the request of a patient
How important the observance of these principles is, becomes clear to everyone of us when we imagine becoming ill ourselves. There is a great danger that ethical and moral aspects are not sufficiently taken into consideration in cybernetic patterns of thinking, because they cannot easily be integrated in functional relations.
Therefor an interdisciplinarian co-operation is necessary. Medical men, psychologists, moralists, social politicians in independent incorruptible committees obliged to social ideas have:
- to define anew the advantage of the patient with today’s methods of treatment.
- to eliminate dishonest irresponsible therapists and methods of therapy.
- to prevent and stop the influence of industry, insurance companies and poitics on medical treatment.
- to work out a modern code of conduct for physicians in the sense of the hippocratical oath and to control the adherence to it.
Only so the decline of human values in modern medicine can be prevented.

The Impact of Modern Commercial Production and Procurement Practices on Cost Estimating and Forecasting
Dr Brian John Hilton
Cranfield University, RMCS, Shrivenham

We are moving into an era of smart procurement, lean manufacturing and integration of systems of systems. The introduction of the first should enable the second and could lead to significant "Value For Money" (VFM) in integration with clear implications for cost forecasting and estimating. As these moves occur any historical basis in defence procurement from which cost estimates can be constructed will be eroded. This is a major challenge for those responsible for estimating and forecasting costs. This paper sets out to categorise the nature of each of these changes. Our intention is to highlight the questions raised for the cost estimating community in addressing them. The paper sets out to compare the development agenda for cost estimating these changes imply with that already in train. The evidence for this paper is published material.
"Smart Procurement" should have a significant impact on future costs. Cost As an Independent Variable (CAIV) alone is intended to have this effect (Kaminski, 1995). The author has previously drawn attention to the estimates implication for cost estimating relationships (CERs) itself being an independent variable (Hilton, 1987). At that time the results produced suggested that in practice cost was an independent variable. Project budgets have always impacted on what one can afford to procure. This result was based on data from an era when costs had ostensibly not been an independent constraint, the Kennedy era of "How Much is Enough?". Now the intention, under smart procurement, is that costs should be explicitly treated as independent. However independent of this the whole basis on which smart procurement is being set up is such that costs is indirectly treated this way anyway. Can we buy cheaper if differential defence specs are eliminated? Can we buy cheaper by using "Dual Use" technology and the technological spin-ins to defence it brings. Will the commercial sector then in being bear a significant portion of development costs? etc.
Lean manufacturing and its associated practices - Just in Time Logistics (JITs), Low Inventories, Zero Defects on Delivery, flexible small batch production, technical co-operation between manufacturer and supplier to design for manufacturers, in service reliability and ease of servicing are intended to impact dramatically on the cost of putting products into the hands of customers. Japanese companies have demonstrated this par excellence. Where are the defence examples of this that can be used to form the basis of estimates of future or even current costs. If "smart procurement" leads to a seamless join between commercial and defence practice procurement analogies from defence will not be necessary. Commercially analogues will suffice. However even the strongest advocate of procurement reform does not believe that a huge monopolistic state controlled buyer like the DOD dealing with a few extremely large prime contractors will ever be able to put itself in a position entirely analogous to that pertaining in the commercial market place. If it could, cost estimating would virtually become irrelevant. The best cost estimate would be market price. This then leaves open the question for the cost estimating community of how one might adjust analogous from the commercial world, based on lean manufacturing and JITs experience, to take account of the realities of the defence market environment.
It is not however, just to the organisational integration prevalent in the commercial world that we have to turn to consider the impact of this type of change on cost. We also need to give active consideration to the impact on cost of the integration that is now possible between weapons and the organisational systems used on the battlefield. Distributed processing, flexible working procedures and co-operation between many independent parties is fundamental to the nature of future Joint and Combined operations. In many ways it may be the digital battlefield, and the challenges it brings doctrinally and technically, that produces the biggest challenge for the cost estimator. This is especially so when this need for integration has to be coupled with the concept of technology insertion so that military systems can at least keep pace with the rate of advance of civilian IT.. With stealth and total communicated battlefield visibility, a paradox exists if there ever was one. A battle space more sparsely populated wit a human presence has implications and complications for cost estimating that we are just beginning to consider. At its simplest we have the choice to take the human being out the loop and so lower costs significantly eg for reconnaissance. The choice as to whether target acquisition or even attack should be managed on or off a weapons platform also has significant implications for the marketability and so cost sharing possible with a weapons system. A weapons system that relies on expensive centrally provided off-platform computation or acquisition technology will not be sellable to those who cannot afford such centralised facilities.
The paper hints at possible resolutions to these cost estimating dilemmas by giving deeper consideration of the idea of technology insertion. If one can shorten the time span between procurements while at the same time lengthening the time over which a particular platform concept stays in service one can lessen technological risk and spread costs out over a longer period of time. Both these results attenuate the impact of cost estimating errors. If at the same time one shortens the period ahead for which one has to make a cost forecast, i.e. until the next point of technology insertion one decreases the margin of error one has to build into an estimate. Error bounds grow exponentially as one extrapolates further into the future. In the age of the Information Revolution with some product life-cycles down to as little as eighteen months such extrapolations should only be for two or three years ahead.


personal computer technology and taiwanese institutional structures
Shih-Chang Hung
Department of industrial Engineering
National Tsing Hua University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan

In the past four decades, economic development in the Far East is generally described as a miracle. Informed by this successful story, many scholars now identify that appreciation of national specificities is critical to explaining economic efficiency and success in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore (e.g. Hill, 1995; Nelson, 1993; Porter, 1990; Whitley, 1992). Yet this stress on national institutional structures has so far mainly led to study on the success of national industries. There has been, in turn, limited detailed research focusing on the failure of national industries within there economically successful Asian countries. Insofar as national specificities have been taken for granted, understanding the performance difference across national industries has become a major challenge.
Within a nation state, some industries succeed, while others fail. Taiwan’s auto industry, for example, is considered to be a failure. but its PC industry is generally considered to be a success. If Taiwan’s economic bureaucracy and business system fail to support the development of the auto industry, then why are the same bureaucrats and family businesses performing well in microcomputers? This is an intriguing question, especially when we refer to the annually published “World Competitiveness Report”, by World Economic Forum and International Institute for Management Development (IMD). Based on surveys of international business entrepreneurs, the report ranks competitiveness by nations. However, as seen in the cases of Taiwan’s PC and auto industries, competitiveness is a meaningless word when applied to national economies. In the modern capitalist society, it is firms, not nations, that compete in international markets. It is important, therefore, to make sense of competitiveness based on how firms interact. Given that firms’ interaction at the industry level is the main locale on which different modes of competition are constructed, the ideal unit for understanding competition and hence competitiveness is the industry.
The industry itself can be understood as a technology, prevailing the value chain. The proposition that technology drives capitalism, that industry development is specified by competence-destroying, architectural technological change is a common one in the organizational and economics literatures. This stress on technological contingencies has been recently amplified by institutionalists with their discussion on social pressure for conformity. With the rise of nation states, appreciation of social institutional is increasingly important to explaining industry activities - hence a concern with “national systems of innovation” (Nelson, 1993). Drawing on this NSI approach, this paper will specify how national institutional structures can encourage or discourage innovation.
In order for empirical testing, we will choose to study Taiwan’s PC industry. It seems that Taiwan’s industry displays a plurality of performances, diverging on activities from innovation to marketing and service. The industry gains a considerably competitive advantage on the segment of assembly and moderately on product design, component manufacturing. Its competition on marketing and sales are rather ordinary. The industry has failed to prosper on the segments of software development, distribution, and service. Though considered one of the most successful industries of Taiwan’s economy, PCs is indeed internally diverse. This diversity may add a fresh angle into the study of competitive advantage of nations, however. By taking the detailed value chain of the industry within the context of both local and international systems, this paper will reveal a diversity that is hidden in the higher level accounts of national competitiveness literature, with their stress on national systems on innovation.

The role of pragmatism in the use of systems thinking for organisational change
W E Hutchinson
1School of Management Information Systems, Edith Cowan University
Churchlands, Western Australia
R K Ellis
(1) Lincoln School of Management, Lincoln University Campus
Lincoln, United Kingdom
(2) Department of Management Information and Systems, City University
London, United Kingdom
(3) Keith Ellis Consulting Ltd, Harpenden, United Kingdom

Organisational change is an endemic feature of modern organisational life. Organisational change is beset with social, economic, environmental, legal, technological, political, and intra- and inter-organisational problems. Practising managers need to make decisions which reflect these components to enact effective and acceptable outcomes.
Systems based intervention methodologies have been developed over the last forty years, which claim to provide a means of finding solutions for such complex problems. These methodologies have predominantly been developed within the academic community, and offered to practising managers as effective tools to cope with the complexities associated with sustainable change in their organisations. These developments include hard, soft, and more recently, critical systems thinking as the supporting intellectual framework.
In the main, these systems based intervention methodologies have failed to gain general acceptance among practising managers. Many reasons have been given for this non-acceptance (Ellis, 1995; Hutchinson, 1996; Warren, Adman, and Ellis, 1997). As problems associated with organisational change become ever more complex, comprehending their nature is getting much more difficult, let alone finding suitable solutions.
However, there has no shortage of management fads offered as panaceas. They include techniques such as Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) and Total Quality Management (TQM). These have a valuable contribution to make, but have not matched expectations. This is evidenced by the very high failure rates being experienced by change initiatives associated with them. Nevertheless, these techniques can easily be sold to the management community because they are seen as supportive of the pragmatic mindset.
On the other hand, systems based intervention methodologies are criticised by the managerial community as being too theoretical, too time consuming, too esoteric, and too concerned with academia (not the real world). They seem to associate these systems methods with academics who use them to fulfil their own requirements, not those in the organisational world.
Academics, who have spent many years developing systems based approaches, may reject these criticisms. They regard practice not grounded in theory as a non-intellectual; a piece-meal approach, based on the immediate requirements of the situation. However, it appears that the fads approach has captured the market in terms of managerial acceptance.
This paper will examine this phenomenon. It accepts that systems intervention should be grounded in sound theory. This is a requirement if effective organisational learning is to occur. Hence, it is a vital for robust and sustainable organisational change.
On the other hand, the paper also recognises the need for managers to get things done. It is this aspect that is the main subject of this paper. It will be argued that it is extremely important that systems intervention methodologies address the need for pragmatism, if they are to gain a wider acceptance among the management community. It will be contended that this is not a philosophical debate (upon which much of the systems movement’s effort seems to have been expended), but rather on the very survival of the systems discipline. This paper will put these arguments in the centre of the public domain, where it must be. The systems discipline has lot to offer decision makers, but if it does not offer them tools which are useful, it will be consigned to history and cease to a be vibrant and living approach to thinking and problem solving.


A Simulator for Operational Organization Design
Kazunari Ishida and Toshizumi Ohta
Graduate School of Information Systems
University of Electro-Communications
1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan

This paper is concerned with developing a simulator for operational organization design. Using the simulator, organization designer can make operational organization model easily and virtually examines alternative coordination structures for cooperation among agents in an organization with the model.
To describe cooperation among agents in an organization and the agents' decision-making for the cooperation, we develop the simulator based on mechanism of alternative creation, selection, and execution. The mechanism is a basic process of agent's decision making.
To illustrate the simulator's range of applicability to operational organization design, we explain the process of modeling and simulating cooperation among cooks in the kitchen of a family restaurant as an operational organization model.
Sustainable technology: Meeting of the spirit, mind and matter
György Járos
Department of Anaesthesia, The University of Sydney
Sydney, Australia
Technology is the way we do things. It is the quality of our actions and not simply the visible artefacts, such as machines, techniques and procedures. While the driving force behind the establishment of technology is the human spirit that yearns for a better and easier life, it is the result of our mental processes, which are involved in its conception, realisation and application. Through technology, we connect our intentions to the lifeless things and infuse them with life (Levinson, 1995). Because technology has to do with human beings in action, it has a profound impact on our lives, not only the way we think, but also the way we feel about and act in the world around us. It also influences the way the world is evolving around us (Laszlo, 1987).
During its conception, each technology has to be evaluated with respect to the processes of life which it is supposed to improve as well as in the total context of the complex web of life. For such an evaluation we propose teleonics as a framework (Jaros & Cloete, 1987; Jaros & Cloete, 1990)..Conceptualisation begins with the clarification of Ethos, with questions such as: "Why are we actually doing this? and What is driving us? being asked. This is followed by teleonic conceptualisation, which consists of the formulation of the goals to be achieved. Functional conceptualisation defines the optimum chosen from different action patterns as way of achieving the goals . Finally structural conceptualisation defines the combination of matter energy and information needed to execute the actions. During the realisation phase the actual technology gets constructed in terms of matter, energy an information. The last phase and the acid test of technology development is application during which the final evaluation and acceptance or rejection takes place.
A sustainable technology has to conform to the Ethos guiding the process it is meant to improve within the larger context of life to which all processes belong.

Jaros, G. G., & Cloete, A. (1987). Biomatrix : the web of life. World Futures ,, 23, 215-236.
Jaros, G. G., & Cloete, A. (1990). The Biomatrix : The web of purposeful processes or teleons. In T. Koizumi & G. E. Lasker (Eds.), Advances in Education and Human Development. Part II : Social Systems and Processes, (pp. 124-133). Windsor, Ontario, Canada: International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics
Laszlo, E. (1987). Evolution: The Grand Synthesis. Boston: Shambhala.
Levinson, P. (1995). Learning Cyberspace. San Francisco: Anamnesis Press.


Living Systems Theory of James Grier Miller and Teleonics
György Járos
Department of Anaesthesia, The University of Sydney at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 2006, Australia

This year marks the 20th anniversary of the publication of the monumental systems treatise, entitled Living Systems by James Grier Miller (Miller 1978) . The aim of the present paper is to discuss how our own work on teleonics relates to LST. We would like to consider teleonics to be an extension of the Living Systems Theory, complementing the latter by providing an alternative and extended perspective with the aid of which the living reality can be studied. The combination of the two perspectives could create a richer picture on a higher dimension.
Teleonics developed gradually from the narrower area of biological systems to a process-based approach which is applicable to a great variety of living systems. First, it was simply systematic framework for mathematical modelling, which grew into a systemic methodology known as the Biomatrix approach (Jaros and Cloete 1987) and finally given the name teleonics (Jaros and Cloete 1993). The basic systems in teleonics are the teleons which are composed of subteleons, joined together to form process chains or action patterns which have a single common teleos. Teleons are autonomous self-regulating, goal related process systems. Teleons are built up of subteleons, which are processes which can indeed be the 20 subsystems described by Miller.
An important difference between our approach and that of Miller, is that we made no attempt to tie the subteleons to concrete systems. In teleonics, subteleons are regarded as pure process units. This way they have a freedom of applicability and can be joined together in a variety of ways in order to serve the teleos of the particular teleon most efficiently. In a system which is not as fixed in its ways as the human body is, such as any of the systems based on grouping of human beings, eg family, community, society and supranational systems, highlighting the flexibility of subsystems resulting from the independence from bondage to concrete entities can be of great advantage. When teleons interact, they form larger process systems called doublets. Concrete entities can be considered to be the physical cores of doublets. While entities have definite boundaries, doublets do not.
When it comes to using teleonics to detect malfunction and pathology in a complex system we have a slight variance from Millers’ views In our view, the self-regulated unit of complex systems is the teleon, not the subsystems. The adjustments to counteract any disturbance must by necessity also occur at this level and not on the subsystem level.

Jaros, G.G. and A. Cloete 1987. Biomatrix : the web of life. World Futures , 23: 215-236.
Jaros, G.G. and A. Cloete 1993. Teleonics : The Science of Purposeful Processes. The ethical management of science as a system. R. Peckham. Louisville, Kentucky, USA, The International Society for the Systems Sciences.
Miller, J. G. 1978. Living Systems. New York, NY, USA, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Christopher D. Jeffery
Department of Management Systems & Information
City University Business School, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB

This paper will explore systemic methods of measuring the loyalty of customers to organisations, which operate in dynamic markets. It will aim to develop case findings from action research undertaken among businesses that have both a transient customer base and have a ‘high spend’ on attracting and maintaining relationships with their customers. The findings will contribute towards the development of a systemic model of the drivers of loyalty that is conceptually valid as well as being pragmatic in its application within the business environment. The paper will aim to illustrate that managers can make informed strategic decisions on how to manage the behaviour of customers towards organisations in awarding loyalty.
The paper will also examine the usefulness of systemic measurement in a dynamic business environment and discuss how the concept can be operationalised to create a useful real world research application.
The paper will conclude by utilising systems thinking to provide an opportunity to deal with the issue of complexity that has been identified in case study and general research. The usefulness of systemic measurement of loyalty to business will be illustrated by the application of results from case organisations in their understanding towards maintaining and increasing the loyalty exhibited by desired customer groupings in real world situations.

Keywords: Customer Loyalty, Measurement, Real World, Business, Fidelitas

Christopher D. Jeffery and Dr. Sionade A. Robinson
Department of Management Systems and Information
City University Business School
Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB

In the first part of this paper, the usefulness of metaphors in developing conceptual frameworks will be reviewed. Drawing on literature from the fields of systems approaches, processes which develop metaphors for the analysis of complex business issues will be discussed. The discussion will then examine the benefits and limitations of the use of metaphors for practitioners.
In developing the discussion of pragmatic use of metaphor, the paper will put forward two metaphors examining organizations’ strategic approaches to customer loyalty within dynamic markets. Through the analysis of real world case studies, the relevance of the metaphors in developing practitioners understanding of customers loyalty issues will be explored.
The paper will close with an evaluation of the metaphors in use in the case study organization and make recommendations for their ongoing development.

Patrick Kangas, Luisa Fernanda Robles-Diaz-de-Leon
and Alfredo Nava-Tudela
Marine Estuarine-and-Environmental Sciences Graduate Program
University of Maryland
College Park
Maryland 20742

This history of humanity is marked with revolutions in which massive social, political and economic changes take place over relatively short periods of time. These revolutions require large amounts of energy for communication and conflict and they consequently impart strong symbolic meaning to the cultures that undertake them. In this presentation revolution is modeled as a kind of mind virus which builds up over time by spreading spatially thought the individuals of a population and by increasing in intensity within individuals. At a critical point in time, the virus exceeds a threshold and violent change occurs. The emergy of a revolution can be measured by the energy required to build the mind virus up to the threshold. We use this modeling approach to describe several important historical revolutions (American, Mexican, French and Cuban). For example, by using various assumptions about the colonial system and mind virus duration (15 years) and virulence (12 percent of the population infected), we estimate the emergy of the American Revolution to be approximately 7 x 10E20 joules. This is then a measure of the energy needed for large scale social change. The historical examples and energy models are discussed in relation to the possibility of creating revolutions for specific purposes such as achieving sustainable development.


Managerial Heuristics for Knowledge Creation
Anastasios Karamanos and Chong Ju Choi
City University Business School
Frobisher Crescent, Barbican Centre
London EC2Y 8HB United Kingdom

The increasingly knowledge intensive modern economy has created an environment of great ambiguity, uncertainty and risk, and calls for organizations to be effective information processors and knowledge creators. Based on the complex view of markets and organizations, and the associated processes for emergent knowledge creation, we present the case for and stress the significance of managerial heuristics to creating knowledge in organizations. Having identified boundary management, identification of institutional influences, sensing environmental change, building and maintaining relationships as the principle managerial heuristics suggested by the literature, we provide a framework for overcoming the ambiguity inherent in the application of such heuristics in the increasingly knowledge intensive modern economic environment. It is a practical evolutionary heuristic which clarifies the processes of institutional identification, boundary management, environmental change and the building and maintaining relationships between economic actors, essential in preserving the zone of creativity in organizations. Our heuristic is founded on indirect measurement indicators, or indices which reflect social or institutional identification and define “dynamic identity”.
Our framework is dynamic and evolutionary, and seeks to uncover the rules, processes or principles for strategic organizing on which quasi-stability of future outcomes may be attributed, and thus contribute towards new knowledge creation and the survivability of firms in complex competitive environments. It recursively accounts for structures and change in structures outside organizational boundaries. Dynamic identity directly reflects on relationships between organizational entities and change in these relationships - it is not static, it varies as relationships in the economic and social structure of the environment evolve with time. Social identification facilitates the process of building new relationships and nurturing them as they evolve - the essense of knowledge creation.

Spirituality and the New Millennium
Russell C. Kick
Tennessee Technological University
Cookeville, TN 38501, U.S.A.

A new and radically different global socioeconomic reality, a product of the information and financial revolutions, is firmly entrenched as the world moves toward the 21st century. This reality, although economic and financial by design, and characterized by an incredible level of dubious ethical practices, has within it the seeds for a new millennium of spirituality. These spiritual kernels are (1) new insights into the nature of space-time, (2) greater propensity to accept change, (3) increasing understanding of Cyberspace, (4) acceptance of alternate forms of intelligence, (5) recognition of creativity and faith as reality defining factors, and (6) expanded perception of what is real and has value. Major elements of the new reality are virtual; they are creations of the mind.
Computer bits moving around the world at near the speed of light are the prime resource of the new socioeconomic reality. These 0s and 1s, although invisible and intangible, are accepted as "real." They are the money, stocks and bonds, knowledge and information of the current reality. These greatly treasured "bits" are the new wealth of nations and individuals. As the 20th century winds down, there is an increasing awareness of the virtual nature of reality and a growing understanding that fulfillment can come from the incorporeal.
This changing perception represents a significant step in the development of human consciousness, a move away from materiality to spirituality. Perhaps the increasing belief in the invisible and intangible will trigger a grand quest for truth, the "more" which Hamlet (Shakespeare) said than is dreamt of in our philosophy. If so, the new millennium will be a time of spirituality in which perennial values are lived and people treat each other and their environment with kindness and respect.

Marty Kleva
Norwich University, Montpelier, Vermont
PO Box 312 Crestone, CO 81131

In the study of Somatic Psychology and Jungian Studies, I have produced a research product, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction As a Path To Individuation Through The Hero’s Journey: A Phenomenological Study. This explores mindfulness meditation, an ancient body / mind practice, used as a medical intervention with ten graduates of an eight week mindfulness-based stress reduction program that is modeled from The Stress Reduction Clinic, University of Massachusetts Medical Center. I inquire in this study if a parallel relationship occurs between the processes of mindfulness meditation and the Jungian process of Massachusetts Medical Center. I inquire in this study a parallel relationship occurs between the processes of mindfulness meditation and the Jungian process of individuation. The view of individuation that this study takes is through the process of the different stages that Jungians refer to as the Hero’s journey. Arnold van Gennep’s Les Rites de Passage describes rites of passage as ceremonies that accompany the crisis which individuals encounter in their life, and identifies them to include three stages: separation, transition, and incorporation. Joseph Campbell refers to these three stages as The Hero’s Journey and names them: separation, initiation and return. According to Jung, individuation or the search of a human being for their true and authentic self, is also our search for God.
The questions this study addresses are: Is there stress in the process of individuation? If yes, where is it? Is it a necessary function of the process? Is the process of individuation beneficial? How does stress fit into our personal and collective mythology? Explored through Jung’s psychological types called functions, is the stress that is present in the process of developing the interior function, our most undeveloped aspect of personality and known for its dark and shadowy side. Through its development, we are provided with the material for our growth and wholeness as a human being, thereby the growth and wholeness as a culture in relationship with others on this planet.
We come to know a great amount of stress as we deal with holding the tension of opposites, conflicts, and archetypal energies that we encounter on the Hero’s Journey. The practice of mindfulness provides us with the arena to hold that tension, to develop the interior function, to provide the place for the unconscious to enter the conscious level, and experience the spiritual connection the Self, God enter the conscious level, and experience the spiritual connection to the Self, God and the Divine.
In the study interviews, all the co-researchers described their experiences of stress and the impact that mindfulness had in their lives. The question each was asked is: How has the practice of mindfulness affected your experience of stress? The interviews and analysis of this study were conducted using the phenomenological research methodology based in the philosophy of Edmund Husserl, and developed by all ten co-researchers and therefore are invariant constituents. Upon examination it is evident that the constituents fall into three main areas of experience. The three areas are: alienation, deepening the experience, and reconciliation. The descriptions in the first stage of alienation, always begin with a reference to pain and suffering through loss or separation of a loved one or a job and career. Some co-researchers describe the call to seek a change in life, and others the experience of chronic illness. In the second stage of deepening the experience, their descriptions shift from something happening to them coming from an external source, toward looking at their reactions to the events in their life as part of their own makeup. This is a sorting and identification stage which with meditation they are able to look deeply into and begin to distinguish parts of themselves that they had not been conscious of before. The third stage descriptions of reconciliation reveal the co-researchers’ ability to integrate a new self discovery into everyday life and the disappearance of old values and distinctions they once based their life on. By all indications, the personal myth, of all participants is based their life on. By all indications, the personal myth, of all participants is based on the stressful events in their life, like the moment Barbara decided to leave her political career for nursing, or the day Bob was able to move through his fear to administer his own insulin shot.
There is and element of spirituality that emerges and prevails throughout the descriptions of the co-researchers. Although this program is based in the Buddhist teaching of mindfulness, it is stripped of religious connotations in its presentation. Yet each co-researcher expresses their own unique understanding of spirituality. Bob talks of it as “close to prayer,” Maria calls it a “mystery,” whereas Bill says he has found meditation to be his “spiritual Path.”

Inga Krattli
Im Planggli CH-8867 Niederumen, Switzerland

Measuring Sustainable Development (SD) be it on the individual or group level, be it on the local or global level, requires the consideration of two major aspect: An environmental and ecological aspect and a socio-economic aspect. Indicators of the latter measure both the social and economic dimensions of human development while environmental or ecological indicators depend on an analysis of the current situation and a target definition. The Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations provides important criteria for such indicators.
The development of SD indicators raises substantial problems. Theoretically, indicators of sustainability combine social, environmental, and economic aspects. In order to supply the most complete and applicable information, indicators must be taken under conditions that allow comparisons between the ecosystems to be evaluated. Sustainability indicators measure a human ecosystem with its many unique characteristics are mostly useful when the generalization that lies in 'top down' approaches is avoided, i.e. when they are applied on the local level.
Using local-to-global concepts, this paper shall present sustainability indicators from a local community perspective. By comparing natural ecosystems with complex human social systems I will evaluate the relationship between existing indicators and local conditions, thus showing the linkages that provide measurable characteristics of the human ecosystem and the relationship between them. Indicators and linkages together form a pattern of the sustainability of an ecosystem.

Keywords: Indicator concepts and context - methods of measurement - systems comparison

A Study on Man’s Spatial Relationships
Prof. Dr. Inga Krättli
President ISIS Int. Society for Interdisciplinary Sciences
Im Planggli CH-8867 Niederurnen Switzerland

This study focuses on the role of time and space as constituting elements in the evolution of social systems in an individual, social, and cross-cultural context. Social systems exist as correlative concepts in time and space. Man and his extensions into his environment constitute interrelated dynamic systems. Time and space serve as medium of social interaction and constituents of history. Space constitutes hierarchically ordered arenas of social practice, where different social forms shape time and space into socially conditioned configurations. Living systems express their interaction with the environment by way of movement and communication within spatial parameters that influence fundamentally an individual’s integration into his environment. In this paper, the differentiation between space with its enabling or constraining properties as the dynamic constituent of social processes and place as a given individual configuration will be elaborated.

Keywords: Territoriality, spatial structures, social static and dynamic, individual integration

Emilio Latorre-Estrada
Professor Engineering Faculty, Universidad del Valle
A.A. 25360 Cali, Columbia

An enormous development is being done in the last years in the area of environmental impact assessment of companies all over the world. Several models were developed at the end of the last decade and in the nineties other models have appeared to orient environmental management actions on the companies. Some of this models like the one developed by the International Chamber of Commerce, or the Environmental Management System (EMAS) of the European Union, Responsible Care of Canada, CERES and finally ISO 14000,1have been improving the analysis of the relationship of the firm with the environment, but don’t offer a method to elaborate this assessment that takes into consideration the connections of the firm with the whole of the production process in space and time
This model was developed by the author in 1994 in Cali, while he was designing an environmental plan for the concrete industries that operate in this city of 2.000.000 inhabitants. Although the model is very simple and easy to use this is also its most important characteristic. It is useful in order to analyze the relationship with the biophysical and socioeconomic environment of the firm and through the whole life of the product or service. It can both be used to evaluate the existing impact conditions of the firm on the environment and also to identify the actions, possibly in connection with the Environmental Management System, proposed by ISO 14001.
It is oriented by the same intention as the Life Cycle Assessment Method, without its complexity, and though it can easily be used by firms consultants and public authorities in order to study the relationship of the firm with the environment.

Emilio Latorre-Estrada
Professor Engineering Faculty, Universidad del Valle
A.A. 25360 Cali, Columbia

In 1993 in Colombia a new law was passed in Congress that gave the country the general orientations of the policy on environmental management at the national, regional and local level. As a consequence the cities of over 1.000.000 in population had to create an environmental authority. The author made part of the group that was assigned the task to design the structure, operation and conceptualization of this environmental authority in Cali.
The work which was done with a very important participatory methodology used the systems approach in order to design this authority and most of all, to create an Environmental Management System for the city.
The authority was created after the discussion of the project in the City Council and has been working since January 1995 (the last administration). The author made a recent evaluation of its functioning and of the Environmental Management System and its implementation in its day to day actions and although this evaluation is not as good as could be expected, it is still on of the most important goals of the administration which has only recently been appointed (January 1998). The lack of “systems” conception in the whole administration, in the personnel and in the policy makers is one of the most important enemies of a holistic environmental management .
This article explains the procedure followed to design this system and its conceptualization, its structure and its proposed functioning, and proposes a general systems model for environmental management that could operate in any city.

Emilio Latorre-Estrada
Professor Engineering Faculty, Universidad del Valle
A.A. 25360 Cali, Columbia

The Primer Project has been a very important site on the web as far as systems thinking is concerned. The author of this paper found this site in October 1997 and with the help of the Primer Group orientation decided to use it for teaching in its course of Scientific Research and Systems Thinking in undergraduate students of Industrial Engineering in the Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia.
The work was done in two interrelated parts. On one side the students had to enter the Primer Project,and then chose, study and comment an article. A work-shop was held in which the fifty students, divided in two groups, had to elaborate an idea of the importance of the systems science and of the holistic approach, and finally build up a “story” relating the ideas of all the individual groups. On the other side the students had to study one industry in the area and analyze its relationship with the environment using the holistic approach, and specially the balance method. In this way the objective of the course was twofold : systems science and industrial environmental management
Finally a work shop was organized by the students in January 1998, in which some conclusions were brought up on the holistic approach to environmental management at the industrial level.
This article describes in detail this experience and proposes some ideas in order to increase the use of the primer project as a means for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching.

Communitarin Ethics and System Thinking to Build
The sustainable Ecological Community

Beomung Lee
Department of National Ethics Studies, Seoul National University
Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea

The aim of this article is to make clear the relation between ecosystem and community and then look for how the law of ecosystem operates to maintain the sustainable community. I'll try to explain why communitarian ethics is required in building the sustainable community. The link between ecology and community is the essential issue of our time. The breakdown of ecological community resulted from the degradation of the natural environment(ecosystem). Evolution ecosystems have developed the most intricate and the subtlest ways of self-organization in order to maximize the sustainability of various local communities
But if we disregard the laws of the sustainable ecological community, we won't maintain such a sustainable community any more. The laws of sustainable community are just the laws of ecosystem. The laws of ecosystem are interdependence and self-organization. In order to build the sustainable ecological community, cooperation and reciprocity are needed among the members of a community. Modern people are required a series of ethical codes to maintain the sustainable ecological community and to be adapted to these situations.
Keywords : Communitarianism, Complex System, Self-Organizing, Synergetics, Ecosystem, Ecological Community

Sergey Levkov
New Jersey Institute of Technology, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102
Alexander Makarenko
National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI", Department of Mathematical Methods of System Analysis (1920), 37 Pobedy Ave., 252056 Kiev, Ukraine
Valeriy V. Zelenskiy
New Jersey Institute of Technology, School of Management, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102,

The behavior of the stock market participants is investigated from the system point of view. The approach employs methods of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), namely, the associative memory type of models. The underlying principles of modeling approach are investigated and a basic mathematical model of dynamics of trading patterns is proposed. The discussion of the included results of computer experiments with the illustrative example reveals the strongholds of the approach as well as weak points to be developed further.

Keywords: dynamics, stock market, associative memory, neural networks.


Measuring the Social construction of occupational value
Brian MacDonald

The Canadian International Development Agency originally commissioned the author to develop a methodology to determine appropriate levels of military spending in countries in receipt of official developmental assistance (ODA) in Africa and the Middle East. Central to this research was the question as to whether the receipt of international ODA might have the perverse effect of allowing aid receiving countries to divert their own resources to excessive military spending (MacDonald 1997a).
In the course of this research the Praetorian Index (PI) was developed to measure the extent to which military forces might take advantage of their monopoly on the use of deadly force to exact economic rents. Three variants were proposed. The simplest, PI1, was calculated as personnel spending per soldier as a multiple of gross domestic product per capita. Because of the use of GDP in the denominator the measure is independent of inflation, economic growth, and exchange rate effects, and can be used for within country time series analysis, or in cross-country comparisons. Cross-country analysis has been particularly difficult in Africa because of frequent large year over year changes in exchange rates, and within country longitudinal analysis has been difficult because of frequent bouts of high inflation. Two alternative measures were developed. The second, PI2, added operations and maintenance spending, and the third, PI3, added capital spending. Because of the decision to work from data sources published by the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the PI2 measure was used in that research.
The Praetorian Index also proved useful in within country time series analysis, and led to the finding that sharp upward spikes in the Praetorian Index were reliable leading indicators of the outbreak of civil war. Analysis presented for the World Order Conference (MacDonald, 1997b) added changes in the Spartan Index, a measure developed for the original study, which in its simplest form, SI1, was calculated as soldiers/1,000 population. This led to the postulation of a Praetorian cycle of civil war in the African context, whose stages could be followed by an interactive analysis of changes in the PI and SI measures.
A question was posed, at the Toronto conference, as to whether PI/SI analysis could be applied to other public policy issues besides those of military spending. A possible application cited was with respect to arguments advanced regularly in favour of increased spending on policing services, on the presumption that such increases would have a positive effect on reducing crime incidence. An alternative view of such calls for increased policing spending might be that they were based on a tendency towards Police Praetorianism-an attempt to artificially inflate the occupational value of police personnel relative to other occupational groups in society.
This paper extends the use of the Praetorian Index measure to the exploratory analysis of policing functions in Canada as an initial test of the hypothesis that the Praetorian Index represents a special case of a general construct useful in the measurement of socially constructed occupational value.

Next level thinking
Donna DeWitt McGarry
Adjunct Faculty-Executive MBA
University of St. Thomas
Minneapolis, MN 55403-2005

No photographer would expect to capture a breathtaking panorama with random shots from a zoom lens. Nor should we expect to form a global systems view with the fragments from our current conceptual framework. Analytical thinking generated a great deal of detail, but analysis is of little use when trying to grasp systemic connections. An alternative is needed if we are to heed Einstein’s words: “The significant problems we have cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.” A global systems view requires thinking at the next level - the systems’ level.
Up to this point, we have not had much guidance in perceiving a system through its tangled web of relationships. Next level Thinking contributes the wide angle lens necessary to perceive a system’s structure and determine why it behaves the way it does. Living Systems Theory tells us the characteristics of a system do not come from its components, but from their organization (Capra 1996).
This paper applies the emerging field of systems science to the way we think. Thinking at the systems level involves perceiving systemic connections and recognizing their pattern of organization. Systems are organized by configurations of relationships and sustained by networks of interactions. The author charts new territory in defining systemic relationships and describing interactions in the complex weave of connections.

Today’s thinking created today’s technology. What possibilities await us at the next level?
applied systems THINKING
Curt McNamara
Digi International
11001 Bren Road E.
Mtka., MN 55343

This paper is an exposition of the meta-process “thinking about thinking”, which aims to make the reader aware of the systematic nature of the thinking process. Once you are aware of some aspect of your mental process you can change it. This leads directly to the second intent: helping thinkers improve their thinking skills. The systems paradigm has proven very powerful, and appears to be the way that all living systems are structures at the biological level. It follows that using a systems approach at the level of thought will bring us into alignment with ourselves and our environments.
From a structural perspective, this paper incorporates the following high-level topics:
• Define our common terms (e.g., “thinking”)
• Capturing a thought
• Transforming the thought with a mental tool
• Mapping a set of mental tools
• Locate your thinking process map
• Increasing your range of thinking tools
• Applying the tools to a situation (e.g., sustainable design)


Alexander Makarenko, Professor, Doctor of Science
National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI), Dept. MMSA (1920)
Pobedy Ave., 36, 252056, Kiev, UKRAINE

Now sustainable development is recognized as the possible leading principle for the next millenium. The main condition for sustainable technology is deeper understanding of reality. Modern World is very complex object with many interconnected elements. This courses the necessity of application of system analysis and modeling. Recent sciences: sociology, ecology, physics, biology and so on consider separate parts of reality. Thus interdisciplinary approach needs. The base for interdisciplinary and modeling is system analysis (theoretical and applied). There are many successes in abstract system analysis and general systems theory (Bertalanfi, Clir, Metharovich et al.). But it is more difficult to apply system analysis to living elements or systems. It demands special approach. There are two basic concepts in modern system analysis - removal from equilibrium, dynamical nature of systems in synergetic and accounting the human factor. New theories were developed recently - Living System Theory (J.Muller), Social Entropy Theory (K.Bailey), and Soft System Methodology (P.Checkland).

Such approaches are the base in modern sociology but there are still many unresolved problems see for example definition of elements, their dynamics, the connections between change and conservation, the measures of structure complexity and so on. Present report is devoted to solution of some problems above on the base on new approaches from recent self- organization theory and neuronet type models. The neuronet approach permits to modeling the general properties described in system analysis in systems with many elements with bonds.

In our approach we consider society as large complex object constructed from many elements (individuals) with interconnections. The individuals are described by mental and material parameters (for example as in K.Bailey approach). We pick out the dynamical laws in models from special class. Proposed dynamical laws permit to imitate the historical processes in society. The crucial step in approach is to take into account the notion of global culture of society as the collection of all material tools plus moral, ethic, religion, justice and so on. The global culture is very stable construct and constitutes the base of civilization (A.Toinby, I.Wallerstine). The model has the properties of associative memory. That is it can learns the bonds between elements from historical process and tend to stable states.

Such approach allows considering many features of LST, SET, G.Homans and J.Habermas theories: hierarchical structures, invariants, micro and macro parameters, evolution or revolution in systems and so on. The applications of proposed approach are also considered in sustainable development, economics, geopolitics, epidemiology, conflict theory, ecology, and stock market.

The applicability to global problems also considered. It is known that in general models of J.Forrester and J.Meadows there are three blocks - biospherical, climate and anthropological. The less developed was anthropological block. Proposed approach is well adjusted to modeling such block (and to another two also). Neuronet approach also allows to consider the nature of interdisciplinary methodology discussed on Vienna Forum' 97 (F.Parra- Luna, J.Elohim, G.Swanson,I.Krattli). Neuronet approach also poses firm base for modeling the self- referencing systems by H.Luchman and to individual model of World in J.Habermas or P.Checklend theories (see Weltanschauung notion).

Makarenko A. (1994) About the models of Global Socio- Economical Processes. Proceed of Ukraine Acad. of Sci. no. 12. p. 85- 87.
Levkov S., Makarenko A. (1995) Geopolitical relations in post USSR Europe as a subject of mathematical modeling and control. Proceed 7 IFAC/IFORS/IMACS Symposium: Large Scale Systems, London, Vol.2, p. 983- 987.
Makarenko A. (1997) Global Social Conflicts and their Models. Conflictological Expertise: Theory and Applications. Vol.1. Kiev. Conflictological Society. p. 83- 90.


THE FOUR WINDS: Meta-perspectualism and Perspectualism
The one and the many
Thomas Mandel

Bela Banathy proposed twenty years ago that an ideal metaphor for the systemic perspective is that of a lens. A camera lens, for example, can bring us close or take us far away. What systemics brings in as new is a multi-perspective that has properties not found in any one of the individual perspectives. We are proposing a new model of Bela's metaphor, a meta-perspectualism, in effect, "THE ZOOM LENS."
We adopt differing viewpoints not only because of a difference in our knowledge, but also because we have adopted a certain way of perceiving. And that "certain way of perceiving" predetermines our perceptions to a much greater degree than our knowledge of the details.
Our perspectual "lens" creates, in effect, our "world view" which determines, in turn what sort of knowledge we will pay attention to. In this paper, we will show that opinions are based on certain selected perceptions, and further that the diversity of these selected perceptions cannot be denied. Nevertheless, diversity is complemented by an uniformity, witness our traffic systems, just as subjective reality is to be complemented with an objective reality. With that in mind, we will illustrate ways to incorporate diversity into a single scheme, a perspectual zoom lens.
We show how an elementary numerical analysis of basic systems reveals an evolutionary scheme eventually requiring all the various perspectives of a "minimal system," in effect creating a view from which all views are necessarily valid (within the limitations and capabilities those views are structured around).
A review of several other "meta-perspectives" such as Wilber's Four Quadrants, Von Bertalanffy's Domains, Hal Linstone'sTOP multi-perspectives and Z. Zhu's similar WuLiShiLiRenLi. All of these are compared to a Geometrical Table of systemic elements. We conclude that Systemics then, is a multi-perspective tool that may allow us to end-run the notion of right and wrong. We suggest that the implications of this perspectualistic view are profound.

Keywords: Systemics, Perspective, Multi-perspective, General System

Jay Martin
Louisiana State University
Coastal Ecology Institute

The benefits of large scale environmental projects upon system functioning are difficult to quantify, making the justification for such projects arduous. One such project is the series of river diversions in the Mississippi Delta. The diversions deliver riverine water with associated sediments and nutrients to interior marshes that were previously isolated from riverine inputs by elevated levees. When isolated, the marshes subside and deteriorate to open water resulting in ecological and economic consequences, such as declines in net productivity, and fishery harvest. River diversions aim to reverse this trend by restoring controlled flows of river water through modified levees. But are the large initial and annual investments of revenue and resources for construction and operation justified by the amount of newly-built, or preserved marsh? Furthermore, does the entire ecological-economic system benefit if the total investment of natural and industrial capital is considered?
EMergy Analysis, which evaluates all system components on a common basis to arrive at quantitative conclusions about system functioning, is an ideal tool to determine the net value of environmental projects, such as river diversions. Benefits derived from diversions, such as increased marsh production, and inputs necessary for diversions, such as construction and operation costs, were evaluated on a common basis; namely the solar energy required for their production. The analysis demonstrated that the system productivity increased due to higher availability of the chemical potential energy for evapotranspiration. The area of created or stabilized marsh was a critical factor in determining the net benefit of river diversions. Net system benefits increased with increasing size of the project area and decreasing intensity of economic investment. The holostic methodology accounts for system attributes neglected with other approaches, such as the embodied energy of sediments, and is recommended to quantitatively evaluate the ecological-economic benefits of environmental projects.

James Grier Miller

In recent years, as Chairman of the Board of the University of the World, I have become interested in making education available worldwide, especially to people who might otherwise have no access to it. Recent advances in technology and satellite networks have made this a possibility. I have been preparing sets of video tapes which are systems oriented. These include at present two sets, on the that includes twenty conversations with world leaders of systems science, the other is lectures on my book, Living Systems. These are currently completed and available.
Sets of video tapes are also available from Dr. Denzil Edge, President of the University of the World and from many other academic sources. Some academic institutions grant degrees wholly on the basis of such distance education.
We have developed a list of the ministers of Education or their equivalent in approximately 200 and intend to contact them and invite them to such distance education courses in their countries. We have made a special case of the world’s second most populous country, India, and have been promised financial support for making such education available there.

Conceptual frameworks for the representation of growth , development and sustainable development
Gianfranco Minati
Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sui Sistemi (AIRS), division of The International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS), USA
10 , viale Jenner, 20159 Milano, Italy

Reference is made to the concepts of growth and development as in economics. Among the possible ones, the logistical curve for the representantion of the quantitative processes of increase is considered. This representation is used in a conceptual framework in which a link of growth processes is assumed as a possible description of development processes. The development process is then considered as based on harmony of growth processes inside to the examined system; harmony is intended as referred to a plan, consistent with a development project. A conceptual framework to represent the sustainable development is also introduced, still based on harmony of growth processes as above, not only considering the inside ones but also valuing the produced outputs as constraints for the systems to be designed by future generations.

A multi-modal systems extension of soft systems methodology: an empirical study
Anita Mirijamdotter
Department of Informatics and Systems Science
School of Business Administration and Social Sciences
Luleå University of Technology
S-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

This paper develops a design method for social systems that do not fit the conventional industrial pattern and that consequently are not apt for regulation through mechanical means. The design method builds upon Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), one of the most widely used and well regarded of design methodologies. Yet, the systems science literature has identified ,some weaknesses in this methodology. It is found that SSM tends to be relativistic in normative issues, that its modelling is at times reductionistic and that there are philosophical inconsistencies between its different phases of design. The task has been to preserve the methodological strengths of SSM while at the same time attempt to correct its weakness by combining it with another systems science approach: Multi-modal Systems Thinking. This approach incorporates a multi-dimensional framework of life and a management model to attain viability in social systems. The combination of SSM with this new framework results in a Multi-modal Soft Systems Methodology (Arvidsjaur Method for short) that has been tested empirically in a project for unemployed youth in Arvidsjaur, a small municipality in the north of Sweden. The Arvidsjaur Method is an effective tool in four ways. Firstly, it incorporates normative standards that overcome the criticisms regarding SSM's relativistic stance. Secondly, it enhances philosophical consistency in the complete design process. Thirdly, it provides a managerial design structure and fourthly, it offers a potential for designing systems that support a holistic, complete and dignified human life. Such an approach is also likely to assist us in appreciating different perspectives of our post-modern society and in making appropriate choices.

Key words: systems design, normative aspects, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), Multi-modal Systems Thinking, (MST), cybernetics, viable systems model, youth work, unemployment.

Behavioral Treatment for the Developmentally Disabled: A Systems Analysis of Residential Service Programs
Maggi O’Hara
1515 E. Erowatf Boulevard, Apt. 315
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301

Since the 1960's, the delivery of services for persons with developmental disabilities has changed immensely. For example, there has been a move from custodial care to an emphasis on habilitation-rehabilitation training (Bradley & Knoll, 1990). This paradigm shift, from deinstitutionalization and isolation to normalization and integration, has increased the amount of persons with developmentally disabilities living in less-restrictive community settings, such as residential group homes. Residential group homes provide a supervised, family living environment to meet the social, physical and emotional needs for persons who, for various reasons, are unable to live independently or with their family (Developmental Disabilities Prevention and Community Services Act, 1997). One questions, however, if persons with disabilities are receiving the training necessary to become integrated into their community.
The job performance of direct-care staff working in residential group homes has acquired much attention. Specifically, their implementation of behavioral procedures. Interventions derived from applied behavior analysis appear to be the treatment that is most effective in working with persons with developmental disabilities (Baer, Wolfe, & Risely, 1968). Procedures deriving from applied behavioral analysis have been shown to decrease maladaptive behaviors such as aggression and stereotypical behavior (Intagliatia, Rinck & Calkins, 1986). In addition, studies have proven the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving vocational skills, social skills, and daily living skills. Consistent and correct use of behavioral procedures by direct- care staff, therefore, can assist persons with developmental disabilities become more integrated into their communities.
Unfortunately, we know little about specific ways in which staff interacts with clients. However, there is good reason to suspect that the direct-care staff are not adequately prepared or trained in effective behavioral procedures (Intagliata, et al.,1986). To date, most of the research has focused on studying the managers and direct-care staff to identify variables which effect how behavioral procedures are being implemented. This simple linear cause-and-effect relationship clearly does notidentify the complex interactions which influence how behavioral programs are implemented.
The purpose of this paper is to utilize a systems perspective to analyze the implementation of behavioral procedures for the developmentally disabled living in residential group homes. A systems approach is defined as "an approach that predicates solving the larger system problems with solutions that satisfy not only the subsystem's objectives, but also the global systems survival" (van Gigch, 1991, p. 428). By studying the residential service program, the system in which the group homes are embedded, new insight on how applied behavioral procedures are being implemented can be gained. First, the relationship between the residential service program, the organization, and the environment will be analyzed using system concepts identified by Sauber (1983), Morasky (1982), and Miringoff (1980). Second, the critical functions of the conversion process, or how the applied behavior analysis procedures are implemented, will be explained. Miller's (1978) living system's theory will be utilized to identify important structural components, such as the decider subsystem. Forth, since it is suspect that there are lags and delays in feedback loops, written and verbal interactions with the environment and within the system will be analyzed using the concepts of process, environmental and output feedback as described by Morasky (1980) and van Gigch (1991). Lastly, based on the above analysis, three suggestions to improve system functioning are offered.
This author concludes that a systems approach is a useful tool in identifyingfactors which influence how behavioral procedures are implemented in residential service programs. By not focusing solely on the direct-care staff, environmental and structural constraints are identified as having an impact on program implementation. By removing these constraints, this author proposes that behavioral procedures can be consistently and correctly implemented by direct-care staff. In turn, the shift from segregation to integration and normalization would be realized.

Bradley, V. J. & Knoll, J. (1990). Shifting paradigms in services to people with developmental disabilities. Cambridge, MA: Human Service Research Institute. Developmental Disabilities Prevention and Community Services Act, FL. Stat. 393.063 (1997).
Intagliata, J., Rinck, C., & Calkins, C. (1986). Staff response to maladaptive behavior in public and community residential facilities in the United States. Mental Retardation, 32, 34-42.
Miller, J. G. (1978). Living systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Miringoff, M. L. (1980). Management in human service programs. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Morasky, R. L. (1982). Behavioral systems. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Sauber, S. R. (1983). The human service delivery system. New York: Columbia University.
van Gigch, J. P. (1991). System Design, modeling, and metamodeling. New York: Plenum Press.

energy HIERARCHY of the earth

Howard T. Odum
Environment Engineering Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville

Insight on the organization of the earth and the universe are sought by evaluating Transformities of atmosphere, ocean, continental earth and astronomical units. Transformity (=Emergy/energy) marks position of anything in the energy hierarchy of the universe. Transformities are also practical shortcuts for evaluating real wealth value (in emjoules and emdollars). On earth values increase from low values in sunlight to very high values in high mountains, critical minerals, genetic information, and stars.

A Cyber Commons in a Virtual Society
Toshizumi Ohta
Professor of Social Information Systems
The Graduate School of Information Systems
The University of Electro-Communications
2-12-1 Choufugaoka, Choufushi
Tokyo 182-8585 Japan
Kazunari Ishida
Research Associate of Social Information Systems
The Graduate School of Information Systems
The University of Electro-Communications

A cyber commons must be an emerging form of organizing. Reviewing several results of simulations concerning the cyber commons, implications for a viable cyber commons will be discussed. An auto-genetic property of the commons attaches an importance of observation with respect to interactions due to local rules held by the participants. Of the implications, a virtual identity of the participants in a network should be explored in an operational organization model including several properties.

Eduardo Oliva-López, Ph.D. and Edith R. Silva-Mendoza, M.A.
Instituto Politécnico Nacional.

This paper aims to show how the competitive performance of managers can be achieved through the awakening and developing of their inquiring capabilities, via actual case studies.
Learning has become a continuous process for globally competitive managers. Indeed, the dynamics of the world's economy poses new and increasingly diverse challenges to all individuals, especially to those in leadership positions. So much so, that new approaches, methodologies, philosophies and techniques need to be devised and implemented.
As it can be appreciated, these new tools can only emerge and evolve, suitably, when the people responsible for it become aware of their need and can influence their development and application. This is only feasible when the managers seek the new knowledge actively. In actual practice, the authors are promoting this involvement with a set of guidelines edited as a working book.
It is realized that a managerial system encompasses all aspects of an organization, including ecological, technological, social and financial matters, to name a few. Because of this, the identification of the case studies by the postgraduate students begins with general aspects of the organizations and proceeds afterwards with increasingly specific endeavors.
The aforementioned guidelines have now been used for several years and some practical results are already available, namely: this methodology works satisfactorily if applied with flexibility. Dogmatic approaches are not congruent with the method and meet resistance from the students. The method can be successful with undergraduates if combined with industrial visits or stays. The teacher's experience can be significantly enhanced when acting as a coordinator and guide. Each case study report represents a contribution to the knowledge of the entire class. The learning process acquires an iterative nature, a properly posed question leads to new knowledge, and this in turn promotes new questions. Theoretical and practical knowledge tend to grow simultaneously, with an emphasis dictated by the circumstances.


Application of a living systems perspective on human experience: an educational Model for Life Planning and Change

Elaine Parent
4010-45 Porte de Palmas
San Diego, CA 92122

The purpose of the educational model described below is to provide a metaframework, based on systems principles, for individuals to use in getting 'the big picture' of how they are living their everyday lives. This is the first step in becoming aware of the patterned relationships between their cognition, emotion and actions. It is a necessary precursor for life planning and personal change.

The educational model builds on a traditional living systems model of input-throughput-output and the interdependent relationships between information and material-energy flows. Information exchange and interaction via material-energy flows, between each person and his or her personally-experienced (or subjective ) world, is viewed as a micro-system, a subsystem of a larger person-environment system. Each micro-system is unique, in terms of individual capabilities - - aptitudes, abilities and experience to date, as well as how they are interpreted and represented mentally.

Focus is on helping individuals develop their unique metacognitive skills. It involves becoming actively aware of the role of information feedback (about what has happened) and information feedforward (about what one wants to happen) in determining the decisions we each make and the behavior (thinking, feeling, acting) that follows. Learning more about how, as a species, we "work" sets the stage for understanding more about our own dynamics, about how we, as a unique, human being, "work." Increasing our awareness of our self-talk (or information feedbforward activities) is an important first-step in this process.

A number of metaphors help readers translate abstract systems ideas and principles into everyday language. They include Life as a Game, the importance of developing a Personal Game Plan, the role played by our individual Personal Meaning System. Also identified are the rules, personal and social, which determine how we play our 'game' in the three theaters (or subsystems) of human activity - the physical world, the social world and our unique, individual psychological world.

Banathy, B. (1996) . Information-based design of social systems. Behavioral Science, 41, 104 - 123.
Checkland, P. (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. Great Britain: John Wiley & Sons.
Cole, Michael. (1996. Cultural Psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
D'Andrade, R.G. (1995). The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ford, D. H. and Lerner, R. M. (1992). Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach. Newbury Park, N.J.: Sage Publications.
Ford, D.H. (1987). Humans as self-constructing living systems: A developmental perspectives on behavior and personality. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ford, M. E. (1992) Motivating Humans: Goals, emotions and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, Ca.: Sage Publications.
Ford, M.E. and Ford, D.H. (Eds). (1987). Humans as self-constructing living systems: Putting the framework to work. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Levine, R. L. and Fitzgerald, H. (1992). Analysis of dynamic psychological systems: Basic approaches to general systems, dynamic systems and cybernetics Vol 1. New York: Plenum Press.
Levine, Ralph L. and Fitzgerald, Hiram. (1992). Analysis of dynamic psychological systems: Methods and applications. Vol. 2. New York: Plenum Press.
Magnusson, D. & Torestad, B. (1992). The individual as an interactive agent in the environment. In Walsh, W. B., Craik, K. . and Price, R H. 1992. Person-environment psychology: Models and perspectives Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 89-126.
Miller, J.G. (1978). Living systems New York: McGraw-Hill.
Olds, L. E. (1992). Metaphors of interrelatedness: Toward a systems theory of psychology Albany: State University of New York Press.
Plas, J. M. (1986). Systems psychology in the schools. New York: Pergamon Press.
Resnick, L.B., Levine, J.M. & Teasley, S.D. (1993). Perspectives on socially- shared cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Smith, L. B. & Thelen, E. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Walsh, W. B. , Craik, K. . and Price, R H. (eds.) (1992). Person-environment psychology: Models and perspectives. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Elaine Parent
4010-45 Porte de Palmas
San Diego, CA 92122


Described is a conceptual model, based on living systems principles, for viewing the dynamics of human experience, on both an individual, and a social group level. It presents a new way of thinking systematically about human experience as a function of person-environment interaction , over time and at various life stages. Focus is on the key role that information plays in deciding how we channel our life energy flows - mental, emotional and physical.

It reflects the traditional input-throughput-output system model, with information and matter-energy exchanges and their role in system operations in general, and in living systems in particular (Miller, 1978). Emphasis is on the importance of information feedback (from the environment) and feedforward processes (in the individual) and their effects on individual thought, emotion and action. Assumed is that both the what and the how of information feedback and feedforward processes (and the resulting experience) of both individuals and groups are influenced by the social-cultural context in which humans live their lives. Banathy, 1996; Checkland, 1981; Cole, 1996; D’Andrade, 1995; D. Ford, 1987; D. Ford and Lerner, 1992, M. Ford, 1987, 1992.

The components (or subsystems) of this model are each individual person in continuous interaction with his/her personally-experiences (or subjective) world. This unique, subjective world system, in turn, is a subsystem of the larger physical and social environment in which each individual is embedded.

Focus in on the pattern in how each person interprets the meaning of information feedback (about what has happened in the immediate and long-term past). This is reflected in information feedforward activity -- the individual’s expectations, anticipations, and plans. They determine the decision-making and the resulting behaviors (metal, emotional and physical).

The model accommodates individual differences in each person - in abilities, aptitudes, and prior experience and how they are interpreted and represented mentally. It can account for group differences - in the kinds of information used, how it is interpreted and the patterns of behavior which result. The framework is a useful model for research into both the idiographic and nonmothetic aspects of human experience.


Banathy, B. (1996) . Information-based design of social systems. Behavioral Science, 41, 104 - 123.
Checkland, P. (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. Great Britain: John Wiley & Sons.
Cole, Michael. (1996. Cultural Psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
D'Andrade, R.G. (1995). The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ford, D.H. (1987). Humans as self-constructing living systems: A developmental perspectives on behavior and personality. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ford, M.E. and Ford, D.H. (Eds). (1987). Humans as self-constructing living systems: Putting the framework to work. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ford, M. E. (1992) Motivating Humans: Goals, emotions and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, Ca.: Sage Publications.
Ford, D. H. and Lerner, R. M. (1992). Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach. Newbury Park, N.J.: Sage Publications.
Levine, R. L. and Fitzgerald, H. (1992). Analysis of dynamic psychological systems: Basic approaches to general systems, dynamic systems and cybernetics Vol 1. New York: Plenum Press.
Levine, Ralph L. and Fitzgerald, Hiram. (1992). Analysis of dynamic psychological systems: Methods and applications. Vol. 2. New York: Plenum Press.
Magnusson, D. & Torestad, B. (1992). The individual as an interactive agent in the environment. In Walsh, W. B., Craik, K. . and Price, R H. 1992. Person-environment psychology: Models and perspectives Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 89-126.
Miller, J.G. (1978). Living systems New York: McGraw-Hill.
Olds, L. E. (1992). Metaphors of interrelatedness: Toward a systems theory of psychology Albany: State University of New York Press.
Plas, J. M. (1986). Systems psychology in the schools. New York: Pergamon Press.
Resnick, L.B., Levine, J.M. & Teasley, S.D. (1993). Perspectives on socially- shared cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Smith, L. B. & Thelen, E. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Walsh, W. B. , Craik, K. . and Price, R H. (eds.) (1992). Person-environment psychology: Models and perspectives. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

The Medical Insurance as an Agenda for Systems Thinking: The Korean Case

Hyo-chong Park
Department of International Relations, Kyongsang National University, Gazoadong 900, Chinju, Kyongsangnamdo, South Korea


With regard to the management system of medical insurance in Korea, there have been on-going policy debates between the protagonists of the unified system and those of the co-operative system. The advocates of the unified system have tended to argue that a number of the existing co-operative systems run on a regional and occupational basis should be incorporated into a one all-encompassing public organization. By contrast, the defenders of the co-operative system have counter-argued that one big public organization would be likely to generate weaknesses rather than merits of the Korean medical insurance program. This paper intends to actively participate in these debates by appealing to modern systems thinking, giving due attention to complex rather than simple systems, a pluralistic rather than single reality, flexibility rather than rigidity, chaos or uncertainty rather than certainty, and a decentralized rather than centralized organization. While admitting the fact that the unified system more closely corresponds to the ideal type of the social insurance system characteristic of the welfare state, this paper emphasizes that the Korean medical insurance program should maintain the co-operative system in its modus operandi. The main justifications for this position are explored by taking advantage of new insights developed in modern systems analysis pioneered by, for example, Prigogine and Jantz.


Keywords: unified system; co-operative system; systems thinking; flexible management system; medical insurance


Jiwoon Park
Department of National Ethics Study
Seoul National University
Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea


The change of knowledge base system was greatly influenced by the change of cognition derived from the systematic understanding of nonlinear dynamic mechanism in natural systems. It can be said that the present knowledge base system has formed by what the people have learned their environmental change is complex world. Based on this perspective I am going to examine the ethical code about complex world.



Kjartan Pedersen 1, Janet K. Allen 2, and Farrokh Mistree 3
Systems Realization Laboratory, G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405



In this paper we share with you our thoughts on the relationship between the way biological organisms evolve and the way engineering systems could be developed. Some observations: 1) Performance and products varies within each industry and this variation arises through deliberate or unintended innovation, which suggest a relationship to variations in populations. 2) Engineering systems develop through a sequence of changes where a system’s state at time (t+2) partly depends on the state at (t+1) and so on, which suggest a relationship to path dependence characterizing gradual evolutionary changes. 3) From the vast number of possible directions for change the actual direction taken is to a significant degree a matter of chance, which suggest a relationship to probability in natural selection. To better understand this relationship we suggest a way of transferring the evolutionary concept from the realm of biology to the realm of engineering design, by mapping some key evolutionary terms and principles into equivalent engineering design terms and principles. Based on this mapping, we suggest some ramifications on engineering design and some research questions this gives rise to. Especially, we look at how evolutionary concepts can be used to develop common platforms for product families.

Keywords: Evolution, engineering systems, product development, product families, product platforms.



Alan L. Porter
Technology Policy & Assessment Center
Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia


“Technological sustainability” is an ambiguous concept. This paper provides an empirical depiction of associated research, in lies of an imposing definition. Research relating to technological sustainability, recycling/reuse, remanufacturing/rebuilding, recoverable manufacturing, and waste minimization is collected from Engineering Index. The resulting abstracts are profiled to identify activity patterns, related topics, and emerging trends, with the aid of Georgia Tech’ Technology Opportunities Analysis (TOATM) software. the United States dominates this research. Of particular interest are advances in design and manufacturing processes oriented toward life cycle objectives and economics. These point to promising applications in various areas, such as chemical operations, plastics processing, and pulp and paper. Technology maps are derived to show recent research emphasis and linkages. Lastly, the paper forecasts likely R&D directions for the next 3-10 years for these emerging technologies.


Anne-Marie Pothas and Andries G. de Wet
Vaal Triangle Campus, Potchefstroom University
P.O. Box 1174, Vanderbijlpark, 1900 SOUTH AFRICA


Methodologies for qualitative analysis often claim being particularly useful because of their inclusivity. However, inclusivity is not warranted in all cases. The criterion for including respondents should be the purpose of the inquiry, rather than inclusivity per se. The authors demonstrate the value of using the purpose of the inquiry as criterion, by contrasting results obtained from different groups responding to the same open-ended questions. Ethical issues arise and are discussed, e.g. who decides which people know what and whether their knowledge is useful or not? The textual data resulting from the open-ended questions were analysed by employing the GABEK methodology (©Josef Zelger, University of Innsbruck).

The Perennial Philosophy

Axel Randrup
Center for Interdisciplinary Research, CIRIP
Byg. 24B, Svog. DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark


By "The Perennial Philosophy" we shall here understand a philosophy of experienced spirituality saying that there is something similar or a common core to all experiences of spirituality and mysticism - across cultures and across the ages. In our time this idea was revived by Aldous Huxley (1945), and has received support from a number of authors. There has also been opposition, however, emphasizing the importance of the cultural differences (Katz, 1978,1983).

Personally I tend to agree with the "perennialists", though I understand that for example a Jewish mystic, who sees the "being joined" to God (devekuth) as the essence of his spirituality, may find spiritual experiences not including God essentially different from his own. On the other hand, the Jewish tradition, as many other traditions, has a general view of man ( Adam and Eve, Messiah) which could be an opening for the perennial philosophy.

Spiritual experiences are often said to be ineffable, transverbal and this of course makes it difficult to discuss the idea of the perennial philosophy in words. So I must admit that my positive attitude to this philosophy depends on intuition more than on reason.

Since religion and spirituality are important aspects of the life in our "Global Village", I think it is important, also for practical reasons, that we exchange views on these matters. Mutual understanding of both similarities and differences will be important for the development of a peace culture, which will be important or even necessary for a sustainable way of life on this planet.


Key words: experienced spirituality; cultures; similarities; differences; sustainable way of life.



Anatol Rapoport


In the so called organism approach to general system theory, exploration of analogies plays a central role. In particular, many systems with living components are regarded as generalizations of organisms. This point of view provides a basis for interdisciplinary research. The conception of war as an institution instead of a recurring event puts the problem of creating a warless world in a new perspective. In particular, the persistence of war in spite of increasing awareness of its threat to the very survival of humanity, perhaps within a few generations, suggests that this quasi-organism has been successfully adapting itself to a changing social environment. The problem of establishing a lasting global peace becomes a problem of creating a social environment to which the institution of war can no longer adapt.

System Effects in Reverse Production Planning

Matthew Realff
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Ga 30332-0100,

Eva Regnier
School of Industrial and Systems Engineering
Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Ga 30332,


Reverse production processes are the part of the product life-cycle associated with collecting, sorting, and recycling of the materials in the product. This paper examines the benefits of using information about the anticipated value of recycling in the future to influence the decisions being made today. It is assumed that the product’s manufacturer is faced with a competitive market, such that prices cannot be altered, and that sales within this market are a function of the recycled content of the product - the higher the content the greater the percentage of market share that the manufacturer can capture.

The manufacturer decides within each period what collection strategy to adopt in each period, and hence how much recycled material she can include in the product in the following period. The recycled content in turn determines the sales that can be achieved and total profits. The amount of recycled material that can be collected is also upper bounded by the sales of the product in this and the previous period. This assumption reflects collection of the manufacturer’s products sold in the previous period. The decision-making is subject to uncertainty in the outcomes of the collection actions, reflecting the uncertainty in the amount of material actually collected. The model form is a Markov Decision Process (MDP), the state of the system represents the amount of post-consumer material available to the recycler expressed as a fraction of the total market for new and recycled material in each period.

For a case study in carpet recycling, the optimal collection policy is derived by solving the above MDP, using dynamic programming. This policy is compared to more short sighted policies that reflect reasonable decision making procedures. The first chooses whether to recycle or not based on the lowest unit cost of the product. The second picks a single collection strategy for all periods and hence does not account for the future discounted rewards. It is shown that the these policies deviate from the optimal one due to their lack of consideration of system effects. Last, the uncertainty in the outcomes of the collection strategies is varied to examine effects on optimal policy.


Keywords: (Production Systems, Markov Decision Processes, Recycling)

Football, business, and government - can studies of high level teams across disciplines produce generic principles for management?

Lawrence R.P. Reavill and Chris Brady
Department of Management Systems and Information
City University Business School, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB


The authors have independently studied the ways in which high level decision making teams perform.. Reavill (1994) considered project teams in high-tech development, and reviewed the work of Belbin (1993), Beer (1994), Brady (1997) has researched the performance of top Government decision makers, the Cabinets of past UK governments, and assessed the quality of the decision making and the coherence of the Cabinet “teams”.

This paper reviews the outcome of these earlier studies, by the authors , by the researchers mentioned, and by others, and concludes that there is some commonality in “to team” interaction and performance, despite the wide disparity of the context of the activities concerned. However, there are some significant differences between the behaviour patterns of the examples discussed, and these are found to be attributable to the culture of the organizational environment in which the team operates, and in some instances to the difference in the objectives of these organizations.

This suggests that the activity and performance of a “top team” has systemic characteristics, and that there is value in further consideration of the teams as open systems. This further analysis reinforces the previous conclusions, and identifies additional ways in which the performance of non-commercial/industrial senior decision making teams might learn from the behaviour of teams at a similar hierarchical level, but in a completely different environment. Some suggestions are advanced for further investigations which could increase understanding of the intangible quality of “teamness”, (the extent to which a group of coworkers coordinate to form a team), at a high level in organizations.


Lawrence R. P. Reavill
Department of Management, Systems and Information,
City University Business School, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB, UK.


Prior work on this area (Reavill, 1997), attempted to model the Higher Education (HE) system from a Total Quality Management (TQM) viewpoint, considering the HE system as a product generating the process or as a service provision process. Initial modelling attempts were not completely satisfactory, but the two early models were rationalised using a systemic approach to give a model based on consideration of the stakeholders of the HE process. This model identified twelve significant stakeholders.

This paper reports further analysis of the roles of the stakeholders, and of the contributions they make to, and the benefits they receive from, the HE system. This indicates that the earlier model can be further refined, eliminating aspects of commonality between stakeholders, and reducing the number of stakeholders to a more clearly differentiated ten. It is possible that further stakeholders might be identified, but if found, these are likely to be marginal in terms of contribution to, and benefit from, the system. Methods of establishing the significance of the stakeholders already identified, and the possibility of others are discussed, in particular the use of systems software analyzing the material and information flows in and out of the system.

A number of interesting insights emerge from the analysis, for example the complexity of the contributions and benefits of the student’s family and dependants; and the major involvement of industry and commerce, both in contribution and benefit; in the HE process. It is concluded that this work could be extended with advantage to include quantification of the costs of the contributors, and the value of the benefits to the beneficiaries, and that this would significantly assist justification of expenditure on Higher Education.

Complex Systems Model for the Analysis of Politics

Yong Pil Rhee


In systems theory the concepts of system and complexity are very closely related. It is useful to view political life as a system of interrelated activities. When we deal with political life as a system of interrelated activities, certain consequences follow for the way in which we can analyse the working of a system. It can be assumed that the dynamic nature of a complex political system may be conceptualized in terms of interacting negative and positive feedback cycles. From the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, it can be assumed that there must be a self-organizing system in the evolutionary development of political system. Thus it can be said that political system is a complex adaptive system functioning in the macroscopic evolutionary process.


Jeff Robbins
Technical Consultant
Ford Motor Company


The sustainable future hinges on reducing rates of human consumption to the point where sources of replenishment and healing can once again keep up with sinks of insult and depletion. If a dynamic balancing of sources and sinks is to be sustainably achieved, it is vital that we develop tools to unearth the roots and consequences of excess human consumption. Towards this end, we propose four principles.

The first is what I've called The Principle of Anexy. Just as an orbiting infrared camera reveals the heat signature of human activity on earth, the principle illuminates what's hard to see by viewing actions and interactions in terms of the flows and counterflows of power and impotence, exergy and anergy. The filter shows us the landscape as gains and losses making it much harder to fool ourselves into thinking we're only gaining when we're also losing.

Second is the Principle of Compensation, the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. Because you cannot concentrate the power of exergy in any system without displacing the impotence of anergy someplace else, the principle says this: Whenever and wherever you see concentrations of power, look for displaced deadening. As a species, we're very good at presenting the illusion of gain without loss. The principle says there will always be loss.

Because they are the most significant drivers of consumption, the next two principles, the Principle of Least Effort, and the Principle of Addiction are two huge hurdles that must be overcome if the sustainable future is to not ring hollow.

Lower global energy throughput will place more demands on exergy conserving human effort than one where consumption stands in for effort. Because we naturally flow in the direction of minimizing effort, if you offer a product that relieves people of effort, they'll take it. In an ocean of exergy consuming products that sell themselves on the prospect of relieving effort, it will take some serious motivating to convince people, worldwide, to deny themselves the illusions of gain through consumption.

Compounding the problem is that the promise of ease produces dependency. We become addicted to the ease and speed of cars, to our remote controls, to our air conditioners, to our fast food, to our malls, and yes, to our computers. More than this, our addictions are being driven by a vast global engine of production that is itself addicted to promulgating ever wider, ever deeper, dependencies. The principles I'm proposing I've found useful in seeing those dependencies, revealing their consequences.

The role of Social Heirarchies in Living Systems

Alfred Roessle
Vice-President Collegium Humanum Switzerland
Im Planggli, CH-8867 Niederurnen, Switzerland


The current digitalization of our society encompasses an increasing loss of credibility of hierarchical systems, once considered to be well established. Previously seemingly intact authoritarian organized companies, traditional military organizations, secret services, and all forms of governments experience profound changes in function. Vanishing hierarchical structures are marking family traditions as well, not only in Western societies. In general, a new way of “tolerance” can be observed in most cultures, with the result of evolving countermovements, such as fundamentalism, neo-nazism, new forms of racism or alienation, and uncontrolled actions in cyberspace.

Under the assumption that hierarchy inherent formal regulations create a prerequisite for the establishment of systems and sub-systems, I will examine the role of hierarchies in the establishment of living systems. I will question whether the obvious and socially accepted hierarchical systems, now in question, are in principle of greater influence on social performance than those hierarchical implications which cannot be subjected to observation and quantification. I will analyze how hierarchy is gradually organized on different stratification levels. Consequently, various forms of hierarchies will be discussed, with reference to ideologies, territoriality, race, gender, generations, social classes, institutional positions, competence, and multiple intelligence.

Based on case studies, I will examine how and when changes in hierarchy can be controlled, or vice versa: how hierarchy can be used as an instrument for controlling systems and structures.


Keywords: hierarchical structures, competence and multiple intelligence, stratification levels



James N Rose
Ceptual Institute
1271 Bronco Circle
Minden NV 89423 USA


Compatibility, coherence and consistency shine through all diversity, complexity and variety of existential forms and systems - whether physics, chemistry, biology, conglomerate organization (familial, social, economic, political, spiritual, etc) or cosmos. Existential companionship relies on them and cannot endure without them. To date, no clear single overview exists which can accommodate those characteristics and all the diverse mechanisms and behaviors of integrated plural-level systems. Advances have been made in many areas such as fractal Complexity, the Austrian school of economics, and even AI/Consciousness studies, but even they are not umbrella frameworks.

The Integrity Paradigm is presented as a possible philosophy (or metaphilosophy) -- a general systems percept -- that can embrace this broad diversity, and cope with interlevel behaviors regardless of specific mechanisms. The Integrity Paradigm proposes a template -- open to a variety of translations -- through which we may understand the general dynamics of systems "behavior space” in the universe, and by which we may endure, advance and evolve.


Keywords: Integrity Paradigm, entropy, complexity, philosophy, metaview


systems ethics: coordinating respect, priorities and opportunities

James N. Rose
1271 Bronco Circle
Minden, NV 89423


"Advancing globalization puts an homogenizing and reductive pressure on cultures, economies, life styles and themas. During pre-Information Age eras "time" was an insulating factor which afforded thoughtful personal and social reaction-space during which to encounter, accomodate, adjust and respond.

That has been diminished with the communcation revolution around us. This means that there are increasing impacting pressures on persons, societies, organizations and governments. The integrity of each is affected by the process needs of the others. In preface to any formalizing doctrines or rules of access and conduct between and among these diverse yet integrated systems is a "style", which might go towards mutual enhancement rather than those competitions which tend to erode productivity.

The utility and integrated purpose of distinct systems need to be evaluated in regard to all companion systems. Only then can choiceful deliberations be made and mechanisms set in place to monitor, control or encourage the free run of just how much access or intrusion such systems (andtheir membership) have on one another."


ref: <> and associated site pages


Process Theories

James N Rose
Ceptual Institute
1271 Bronco Circle, Minden, NV 89423


"This paper presents a concise review of the Integrity Paradigm (Rose 1972,1992), a thesis which uses a systems approach to supercede the factal complexity version of emergence and the interactions between companion and especially heirarchical organization structures. In an attempt to be as broad as possible, it faces head-on the challenge of interpreting trends and tendencies of systems, translating local terminologies and definition assignments into the process understandings that are now available. Once these clarifications are made, systems can be evaluated, guided or amended by re-application of the original terminologies, but now with benefit of systems dynamics thinking --embodying 'intrinsic' as well as 'value-added' considerations."


ref: <> and associated site pages


Proportional entropies: a new class of Power Laws

James N Rose
Ceptual Institute
1271 Bronco Circle, Minden, NV 89423


"The primary factors in the stasis, sustenance and growth of organizations-which-process <energy, information, skills, commodities, etc> are 'input availability' and 'load capacity'. Back pressure and competition mechanisms play roles but only when resources and processing abilities are in place first, which enable and drive the dynamics.

It is important to distinguish between generating-rules and result-patterns - which can be mimicked by simple mathematical functions and thus 'seem' like generating rules. Power Laws analogue some patterns and seem like predictive rules, but should be utilized with caution. (eg, phototropism, which in the surface looks like a direct correlation between light and subsequent plant growth, but in fact is a result of metabolic actions reliant on durations of darkness andshade instead.)

Complex systems are essentially "nested" organizations (Rose 1973, 1992) and assemblies-of-assemblies (Hebb 1949; Scott 1995). Certain rules govern production of next-level assemblies, while other rules pertain to energy/information distribution within assembly layers -- which intra-layer rules (Power Laws etc) can be applied equally in any assembly layer, and thus be considered pandemic and universal even though distinct assembly levels employ mechanisms unique to their frames of reference."


ref: <> {and site pages}

Broad application of Sustainability

James N Rose
Ceptual Institute
1271 Bronco Circle Minden NV 89423 USA


Using notions discerned in the Integrity Paradigm (Rose 1973, 1992), global economics is treated as an integration of coordinated biological systems. Firms, local economies, trans-nationals et al are evaluated as requiring open optionspaces in which to thrive, mature, sustain and adapt. This means regarding each person or organization for their contribution to the whole and honoring their respective survival needs. It means literal re-application of the word "resources". Ie, money, people, skills, knowledge, materials, time, are re-'sources' ... crucial well-springs of energy/information/creativity which may be and need to be used over and over again in order to sustain the "whole". It means re-considering the nature of 'leadership' . . . at all levels . . . where responsibility to the broader welfare of peoples, organizations, the biota, supersede the raw quest for power and control - which can only suffocate "survival" in the broadest sense.


Keywords: commerce, exchange, resources, Integrity


Applying the Process Theory of Systems to Depressive Illness: coupling neurohormone replacement with conflict resolution and co-creative behavior.

H. Sabelli, L. Carlson-Sabelli, M. Patel, A. Sugerman, J. Konecki
Chicago Center for Creative Development, Rush University,
University of Illinois at Chicago, and Fielding Institute.


This article presents a comprehensive approach to depressive illness, and illustrates it with ongoing research and clinical data.

American psychiatry has adopted the system's bio-psycho-social model of illness proposed by Engel. Within this context, process theory provides the concept of biological priority and psychological supremacy [Sabelli and Carlson-Sabelli, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1989], which guides our clinical approach to depression in its unipolar (Sabelli and Carlson-Sabelli, Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 1991 ] and its bipolar [Sabelli et al, Psychiatry, 1990] forms. Since then we investigated the model empirically, connecting biochemical findings with psychodynamic theory [Sabelli and Javaid, Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 1995], psychological testing [Carlson-Sabelli et al, Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama and Sociometry, 1992], and electrophysiological research (Sabelli et al, Journal of Mind and Behavior, 1997].

Illustrating the priority of the simple, metabolic dysfunctions have priority in the genesis of depression, and their correction is necessary, but not always sufficient, for recovery. Phenylethylamine (PEA) is a neurohormone that promotes energy and elevates mood. Data will be presented indicating that 60% of depressed patients (Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, depressed phase, N = 80) have a reduction in PEA metabolism. Likewise PEA replacement (2 to 60 mg/ day) is effective in relieving depression in 60% of depressed patients (Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar Disorder, depressed phase) (N= 34) in a matter of hours or days, without toxic effects, tolerance or abuse [Sabelli et al, Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 1994, 1995, 1996]. PEA replacement is a natural, physiological treatment of depression (as contrasted to treatment with synthetic or botanical drugs).

Illustrating the supremacy of the complex, PEA metabolism is markedly altered by strong emotions. Likewise emotions and other patterned processes organized by the central nervous system largely determine heart rate variation, as it will be illustrated here by its reduction in depressed persons. In contrast, depressed persons show a greater variation of mood patterns. Both low heart rate variation [Wolf et al, 1978] and increased mood variation [Vaillant et al, 1997] increase mortality, indicating that health is neither equilibrium nor disequilibrium, but a co-creation of coexisting opposites.

To apply these concepts to comprehensive patient care, we employ the three postulates of process theory: the universality of action (energy x time), opposition (interactions and information), and co-creation (novelty-generating interactions) that surmount dichotomic oppositions. (1) Action: PEA is a non-specific modulator of psychological energy, and hence of attention, sexuality, love and self-love. Depression is a reduction in energy, and a slowing of psychophysiological time, due to a deficit in the production or release of the hormones (thyroid, and neurohormones (PEA, serotonin) that support psychophysiological energy. (2) Opposition: Love and self-love are complementary opposites; depression often is a marital and/or familial illness. Conflict induces a triad of complementary emotions (anger, fear and anguish) and alternative behaviors (fight, flight or depression). Conflict and defeat can inhibit action and neurohormone metabolism, inducing depression, and a deficit of neurohormones may inhibit harmonious behavior and generate interpersonal conflicts. Thus the treatment of depression often requires both neuroamine replenishment and the resolution of familial and/or job-related conflicts. (3) Co-creation: Insofar as depression originates or is exacerbated and maintained by familial, social and intrapsychic conflicts, therapy hinges on promoting co-creative interactions, and creative thinking that generating third alternatives to the dichotomous dilemmas by depressive black-and-white thinking.

Process thermodynamics and informational entropy. Empirical study and mathematical formulation.

H. Sabelli, M. Patel, L. Kauffman, A. Sugerman, L. Carlson-Sabelli
Chicago Center for Creative Development,
University of Illinois at Chicago, and Rush University.

Closed system thermodynamics defined entropy as a state variable, and postulated a universal tendency to equilibrium which was interpreted as disorder by Boltzmann's statistical mechanics. Schrödinger explained the development and maintenance of life as the result of a local reduction in entropy. Prigogine has shown that in fact far-from-equilibrium processes generate complexity, without abandoning the concepts of equilibrium, entropy as disorder, and life as anti-entropic. In contrast Shannon defined entropy as information, and Lotka attributed biological evolution to the increase in entropy. Here we propose that entropy is generated by both system formation and system destruction (e.g. energy is liberated by both atomic fusion and atomic fission, biological metabolism includes both anabolism and catabolism). Empirical data and a mathematical model support the view that the temporal increase in entropy represents a process of diversification, including both evolution and destruction, rather than a tendency to disorder, decay or uniformity.

(1) The equation H = - k S Pi log2 (Pi) used in statistics, statistical mechanics and information theory as a definition of entropy measures the diversity and symmetry of a numerical series, not its order or disorder. The entropy equation measures the amount of information, but it does not demarcate its defining feature, to establish one direction or its opposite in the flow of action.

(2) The statistical entropy of a process differs conceptually from the thermodynamic entropy of a state: (a) it quantifies change, not a state; (d) it is measurable, whereas the entropy of a state is not; (d) it must be separately measured for the simple and complex components of the process. We thus measure the entropy of the time series, of the differences between consecutive members of the time series (up to the 10th difference), and of recurrences at 1, 2, 3 ... N embeddings. These methods are applied to natural processes and to mathematical models.

(3) To study natural processes, we measure time series of physiological variables such as cardiac beat intervals, and the time course of currencies, prices, and economic indexes. Natural patterns of organization characteristically show high rather than low entropy, higher than random recurrence entropy, asymmetric distribution, and complex pattern of variation in the entropy of differences; they differ from periodic order in having lower recurrence rate than random series, indicating the continuous creation of novelty, rather than the high recurrence rate that defines periodic order. Organization is neither periodic order, nor disorder.

Organization is also evident in the simple systems studied by thermodynamics. As the actual realization of an open system, the earth atmosphere demonstrates that gases do not spontaneously tend to equilibrium and uniformity as in a closed system, nor continuously expand as in an idealized open system, but create a complex pattern: spheroidal volume, uninterrupted molecular flux (temperature), circulatory patterns (asymmetric cycling which exemplifies how opposites differ and imply each other), a tridimensional organization (night-day variation in the East West direction, North-South bipolarity, and a vertical hierarchy of pressure), seasonal periodicities, chaotic processes, more complex organization resulting from interactions with land and sea, and chemical heterogeneity. Heterogeneity embodies information, the minimum of which is one difference between two opposites. The coexistence of two different size particles is sufficient to create evident order [Dinsmore and Yodh, Nature, 1996].

(4) To model natural processes, we considered periodic, chaotic and biotic patterns generated by iterative equations. Biotic patterns generated by the process equation At+1 = At + g sin(At) are similar to biological time series, showing high entropy, asymmetry, lower than random recurrence rate, and low recurrence entropy. The process equation abstracts the two basic postulates of process theory: time asymmetry (corresponding to Pasteur's cosmic asymmetry) and the coexistence of opposites (information). The addition of asymmetry and opposition as universal features of processes suggests an approach to extend the statistical mechanical interpretation of thermodynamics.

In search for a thermodynamics of natural processes, we advance the following hypotheses and concepts: (0) Flux is universal; there is no zero temperature (Nernst's theorem) nor absolute void. The atom with its electron movements, and the universe that generates life, demonstrate perpetual motion. (1) Action (action = energy x time, the dimension of the Planck quantum) is a universal dimension. Nothing is in equilibrium, but everything is an asymmetric flow of energy; when the proverbial spoon comes into equilibrium with the hot soup, it becomes warmer than the air surrounding it, and so on, and thus equilibrium and uniformity never are reached. (2) Action is quantized in time and space, the surface to volume ratio being enormous for both finely grained substances and biological structures, necessitating the consideration of geometry rather than volume in the analysis of entropy (Fermi). (3) Action is a vector: we define information as the direction of action. (4) Processes spontaneously generate symmetry, both simple (disorder) and complex (structure), and thereby generate a hierarchical asymmetry (simple to complex). (5) Enantiodromia: As symmetry and asymmetry, all opposites coexist. Action becomes heat, but also heat generates action. There is both diversification and uniformization, net evolution and coexisting involution, rather than a unidirectional tendency to decay and uniformity. (6) Elementary enantiodromia: asymmetric physical action generates symmetric flux, but there is a small counterflow (as implied by Boltzmann's mechanics, in contradiction to absolute thermodynamic irreversibility); flux means that undirected action is larger than directed action in time and space, but it can include islands in which order has local supremacy. (7) Complex systems such as organisms are high entropy processes, that export complex products, not only waste, to their environment. (8) There is a net flow of free energy from low entropy environments to high entropy complex systems such as organisms. (9) Processes are neither deterministic nor accidental, but there is a unidirectional flow (uni-verse) in which the interaction of opposites co-creates further differentiation, i.e. diversity and complexity as quantified by statistical measures of simple and complex entropy. (10) Generalizing the idea that natural systems are heterogeneous, and the separation of opposites is never absolute, an informational interpretation of entropy must include both information and its opposite, falsification, a dialectic logic of two signs, +1 and -1, rather than a static logic of 0s and 1s.

Mathematical Physiology: A Process Theory of Systems.

H. Sabelli and L. Kauffman
Chicago Center for Creative Development
and University of Illinois at Chicago


Scientific theory models concrete systems with abstract systems. Embodying action, opposition and feedback as fundamental properties, the process equation At+1 = At + g * sinAt [Kauffman and Sabelli, Cybernetics and Systems, in press] generates "biotic" patterns that, like biological time series, are complex, diverse, responsive to initial conditions, and less recurrent than random, as well as significant numerical constants (pi, the golden ratio, Feigenbaum's universal constant). For g < 2, the equation converges to an even multiple of p (cycling of opposites). At g > 2, it generates asymmetric opposites; when the lower path approximates 1.6181.. (Fibonacci's ratio describing spiral order), the upper path approximates 4.6692... (Feigenbaum's constant characterizing bifurcation into chaos). A cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leads to chaos and periodicities (6, 3, 4, 12..). As g approaches and exceeds Feigenbaum's constant 4.66..., At expands both positively and negatively, generating 3 alternating patterns (a) aperiodic biotic patterns resembling those observed with cardiac data; (b) bioperiodic patterns highly sensitive to initial values, when g equals odd multiples of p (sign inversion); and (c) infinitations (flights toward positive or negative infinity according to minor changes in initial value) at even multiples of p (full cycling). The "butterfly effect" observed in chaotic states is augmented for all three patterns of the biotic phase.

The same sequence of patterns (from convergence to biotic) can be generated by complementary opposite equations At+1 = At - g * sinAt, and At+1 = At + g * cosAt, or when the trigonometric function is replaced by a pair of numbers s and c such that r2 = s2 + c2, s' = s + _c, and c' = c - _s, a complementary opposition that generates rotation, and recursively produces the values of the sine and the cosine. The coexistence of opposites is necessary and sufficient to generate complexity.

Rendering feedback gain an incremental or sinusoidal function of time, the process equation becomes At+1 = At + gt * sinAt. This version generates "lifeforms" that evolve through successive bifurcations from a single "egg", create biotic patterns, and terminate by converging to a transient equilibrium from which a new "lifeform" emerges, whereas the enantiomorph At+1 = At - gt * sinAt converges to 0.

The process equation abstracts two cosmic forms --asymmetry and complementary opposition. A cosmic form is a pattern whose embodiment is found at all levels in nature. From Pythagoras, Heraclitus and Aristotle to Pasteur, Cook, Jung, Gödel, and Thom, materially-embodied cosmic forms are proposed to organize both processes and abstract thinking, explaining the surprising correspondence between mathematics and reality. This oneness of physical and mental processes is the central tenet of physiology as a biological science and as natural philosophy. Science originated as physiology, an integral theory of processes that regarded living processes as a model for nature. Pythagoras discovered the first numerical law as the relation between vibrating strings and musical perception, leading to the postulation of small integers and of harmony (the cycling of complementary opposites) as cosmic forms. Pasteur discovered the asymmetric preponderance of one of the two complementarily asymmetric opposite forms (enantiomorphs) in biomolecules, postulating a cosmic asymmetry, which was confirmed in our century by the discovery of the violation of parity in beta decay.

Updating integrative physiology, the process theory of systems [Sabelli Union of Opposites, 1989] is grounded on psychophysiological research [Sabelli and Carlson-Sabelli, American J. Psychiatry, 1989; Sabelli et al, J. Mind and Behavior, 1997], and it is formulated mathematically. Lattice asymmetry, group inverse (opposition), and topological transformation (organization) are the three fundamental mathematical structures (Bourbaki), and correspond to the three fundamental cognitive structures (Piaget). These forms also correspond to the small integers (1, 2, 3), and to the fundamental physical dimensions (action = energy x time, information, and spacial structure). Process theory postulates that these three forms together constitute a "cosmic seed" present at all levels of integration, thereby generating a fractal self-similarity.

(1) Action is the universal component of nature (oneness), formed by units at all levels of organization (quanta, atoms, cells); as the linear flow of energy in time, it is a uni-directed vector (cosmic asymmetry), excluding absolute zero (e.g. Nernst theorem) and complete equilibrium (maximal entropy). (2) Cycling of opposites is a universal form (electromagnetic waves, walking, mutual implication of opposites). Opposites are complementary (orthogonal, i.e. both synergic and antagonistic) and asymmetric, thereby carrying information. (3) Organization, the co-creation of complex (N-dimensional) organization through interactions has as a minimum the generation of triadic asymmetric structures such as physical space, periodicity (that imply an infinite number of infinitations as per Sarkovskii's theorem), and color-like organization (from quantum chromodynamics to psychophysiological color); tridimensional phase space is necessary for chaotic and for biotic patterns (Poincaré-Bendixon theorem).

Illustrating the difference between creation and determinism, physiological patterns such as time series of cardiac beat intervals are characterized by the production of novelty as evidence by a pattern with low Hurst exponent, and a recurrence rate lower than random. These characteristics are present in the patterns generated by At+1 = At + gt * sinAt, but not in random, periodic or chaotic time series. The determined creation of diversity and complexity is offered as an alternative to both determinism and accident in the causation of evolution.

Instrumentation and Calibration in financial Accounting

Stanley C.W. Salvary
Department of Accounting, Canisius College
2001 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14208


While Williamson [1981], following Coase (1937), advances transaction costs as the basis of analysis, chandler [1992] maintains that it is the firm (with its human and physical assets) that constitutes the unit of analysis. To Williamson, the firm is but an alternative means of governance to the market; for Chandler, the focus is on the predictable form in which economic activities will be undertaken. The two approaches reflect different aspects of economic thoughtprocesses. From the perspective in this treatise, there will always be some organized form, whether it be a firm or the collective effort of individuals bounded together as a cohesive unit, that would consitute the observational unit. A measurement can always be exacted, but: what is the observable phenomenon? The view for financial accounting advanced in this paper is that society is involved in an investment process - the most critical part of which is learning as a trial and error process.

The social investment process is a very broad process, which covers knowledge being acquired and information being disseminated to the members of society to bring about a general awareness--the promotion of social interaction for the purpose of minimizing the costs of social exchanges. Society attempts to understand the environment in order to develop means to cope with an uncertain environment. Society is an organization and not an organism. It is the highest level of organization. Many sub-levels organizations have emerged in society. Organizations are continuously undertaking investments, and knowledge (on what has taken place and is taking place) is covered by financial and managerial accounting.

Investment is the observable phenomenon in financial accounting [Salvary 1992]. The function observed is that of investment, be it by each and every sub-level of society. Productivity is the objective and there is a need to measure productivity to correspond to the nature of the operation: governmental organization, non-profit organization, or profit oriented organization. Importantly, business (the profit-oriented organization) is neither the general model nor the general case. Organizational efficiency is the general case and the organization is the general model.


Savely Savva, M.S.
Monterey Institute for the Study of Alternative Healing Arts (MISAHA)


Somewhere between the specific that has no meaning and the general that has no content there must be, for each purpose and each level of abstraction, an optimum degree of generality.
K. Boulding, one of the founders of the General Systems Theory.


Biologists, biophysicists and medical scientists, when encountering phenomena of life and consciousness that do not fit into the current mechanistic paradigm, try to find alternative heuristic approaches to resolve the unsettling situation. Thus ten biologists and physicists presented their views on the relevance of energy and information to mind-body medicine and biology in general in a recent issue of Advances (Vol.13, #4, 1997), the journal of the John Fetzer Institute, one of the few foundations capable of financing unconventional studies in biology and medicine. As K. Klivington put it in his summarizing article, “We clearly did not wind up with a new textbook on the subject (certainly it was not our aim), but we did receive some imaginative speculations on how to do a better job in thinking about the issue at hand.”

I found it interesting that there is a general consensus among the participants that the current medical model as well as the concepts of life and consciousness are inadequate. There is a general feeling that the knowledge of the information flows in organisms is essential for understanding life, health and disease (“Disease is essentially an information disorder” P. Bellavite), although some authors believe that only semantic information, i.e., the meaning transferred, is relevant to life (T. Staiger, J. Hoffmeyer). The majority of authors would agree that the DNA of a genome cannot carry all the information necessary for embryogenesis, but none of the participants would refer to the concept of bioinformation or morphogenetic field that has a long history. Perhaps, it sounds more scientific to refer to “the unmanifest structure of the vacuum sea” reflecting “the whole ontogenetic and phylogenetic past” of an organism (M. Conrad), or to a “macrohistorical process” that is embedded in the “extremely complex architecture of the cytoskeleton, which is itself copied from its parent cells in an unfinished chain arching back to the beginning of eukaryotic life on this planet” (J. Hoffmeyer), or to “Quantum vitalism” — “macroscopic quantum state” that “can solve the problems of protein shape, differentiation, and ‘unitary oneness’ in living systems” (S. Hameroff). Only one author (P. Bellavite) explicitly supports the old vitalistic concept, but he rejects a cybernetic approach and the vital importance of a general control function. “It is difficult to say whether there is a ‘conductor’ (he compares organism with a performing orchestra), because all parts, including the brain, function properly, influencing one another reciprocally.”

The following are my considerations as to how to bring biology and medicine closer to the methodology of physics, and bring physics closer to the comprehension of life and the mind as physical realities of our universe in a systemic approach. This ambitious task by necessity cuts across multiple scientific disciplines with mountains of literature in each of them that by no means could be reviewed by one individual. At the same time, a general concept cannot be built from within one discipline. I see myself in a position of an engineer, which I actually am, who set his mind to solve a very practical problem: how to experimentally outline the control system of an organism.

Basically, I propose the following:

1. Information plays an increasingly important role in the physical description of the complex systems’ dynamics. However, parapsychological studies revealed very peculiar properties of information transfer processes that may be relevant to the understanding of life and consciousness.

2. The meaning or the semantic information is relevant only for mind-possessing organisms. Therefore, I propose functional definitions of the mind and consciousness as adaptational mechanisms in the biological evolution.

3. The majority of visceral processes in any organism (including that of humans) are automatically controlled. Accordingly, organisms can be perceived as complex automata and described by a cybernetic model. However, organisms’ control systems include a complex bioinformation field component that may play the coordinating role for somatic control subsystems. The physical nature of this bioinformation field is as yet unknown.

4. Delineating and mapping the organism’s control system, its structure and function, is a task of a tremendous practical (for medicine) and scientific importance. The practical way to do this is by simultaneously studying responses of all control systems and subsystems to internal disruptions and ambient interventions including psi healing (which is the direct bioinformation field interaction) as well as to changes in patients' mind set.

Counting, Accounting and Asbtraction

Denise Schmandt-Besserat
Center for Middle-Eastern Studies
The University of Texas at Austin


Civilization meant more than social and technological innovations. It required the acquisition of complex cognitive processes., in particular, the ability to manipulate data abstractly way key to the development of urban society. This is illustrated by the evolution of artifacts for counting and accounting associated with the rise of the very first civilization in Sumer, Mesopotamia, about 3000 BC. Here, the development of a system of clay tokens and its final trnasmutation into writing on clay tablets document the significance of processing large amounts of information in ever greater abstraction.

Sustainable Food Production and structures of Responsibility

Ben Schoon
Institute for Cultural Ethics
Puntenburgerlaan 85, 3812 CC Amersfoort, THE NETHERLANDS


Farming is influencing the natural environment in order to grow food. But in our days modern farming can be characterized as wrecking our environment and nature, destroying even the future production capacities of land and nature. And it appears that an individual conventional farmer is often unable to escape the vicious circle of low price levels, more investments, more technology and efficiency, and pollution and overproduction. Agriculture seems to be a societal system that can not be redirected towards a more sustainable practice by farmers themselves. A survey of values among Dutch conventional and organic farmers makes clear that most conventional farmers do not feel responsible for their unsustainable practice. They blaim society, or the market, or the system. An ethical analysis of the agricultural system sheds light on the difficult relation between individual and societal responsibility in regard to agriculture. The traditional pursuit of material prosperity in our modern culture has brought us modern agriculture. The typical values of modern culture are found mostly among conventional farmers. It is therefore the responsibility of society as a whole to consider a new ethics for agriculture as a system. Instead of a maximum individual prosperity, society should pursue a minimum dignified existance for the present and future generations, by securing the ëseven basic human needsí of social psychology. Furthermore, nature should be preserved unless a minimum dignified human existance makes use of nature necessary. The agricultural system is to be set standards for sustainable production of safe food. This way a new set of values, expressing this new ethics, can be offered to farmers, but have to be accompanied by viable alternatives for their present practice. The price of a more sustainable agriculture is to be paid by society. Then it is the responsibility of the agricultural knowledge system, and of individual farmers, to generate a new practice. Finally, the government has to play an important role: in articulating the new ethics, in facilitating the changing of the system, and most of all in defending the rights of the weak: both consumers and producers of food, and nature.

Organizational Intelligence: The Ecological Dimension

Markus Schwaninger, Professor,
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland


While a few years ago, a broadly shared view considered ecological concern something personal and private, the environment has become a public issue of high priority. Recently, the postulate of the "green company" has emerged, however on pragmatic grounds. For organizations, environmental responsibility continues being a controversial subject because few theoretical efforts have been dedicated to synthesizing the corporate and the public-ecological perspectives.

This paper is about management technology. The question is discussed, how the two perspectives, corporate and public-ecological, can be merged. Systems thinking offers new possibilities to solve the conflict between these two domains of interest. The author introduces the cybernetic concept of organizational intelligence, to illustrate this potential. In principle, intelligent organizations dispose of the following faculties:

- To adapt and to learn
- To actively influence their environment
- If required, to find a new milieu or to reconfigure the environment-organization-system altogether.

Ecologically responsible management is at the core of all three. A framework is introduced which enables organizations to design themselves and control their activities so as to become sustainable, and therewith ecologically intelligent in a comprehensive sense. The conceptual framework is underpinned by an empirical study involving 200 + private sector firms.

the application of chaos theory to the management of change in organizations: a theory of humility: metaphor or reality?

Elaine Scott & Lawrence R. P. Reavill
Department of Management Systems & Information
City University Business School
Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB


This paper seeks to explore the notions of bounded instability (chaos theory) in the perception of organisational change. It is an application of systems thinking to business. When undergoing change within instability a small difference in initial conditions may or may not result in a major outcome. In this way a change agent can intend a particular action, but the outcome cannot be intended. An approach is then required within the domains of organisational change, whereby its iterative property is taken into account. It is not enough to carry out change incrementally. The notion that the results will iteratively feedback into the system must be recognised. Hence the change in initial conditions may have a large effect upon subsequent outcomes. The process and results of change can be seen as self-organising and emergent.

It is often thought that there is a need to reduce complexity when attempting to implement change. This paper puts the opposing that complexity is a necessary and inevitable agent in change.

The concept of ‘change management’ will be presented as paradoxical. We cannot fully manage change, it is self-organising and emergent. this may be seen as a theory of humility. It is not possible to have full control over change. It is only possible to intend the very immediate actions and consequences. The future cannot be known, it must be given time to unravel. It is a theory of humility because actions of agents may or may not have an impact, and that impact may be large or small. Inherently we have a distinct lack of control on long term outcomes. It is the human need for stability and control that has lead us to attempt to apply prescriptive methodologies to change. this paper will show that a greater understanding of our lack of control will help us to utilise complexity rather than denying it.

Limits to memory in ecosystems and society

Jan Sendzimir and Howard T. Odum
Environmental Engineering Sciences
University of Florida
Gainseville, FL 32511


General systems analogs of short term and long term memory are found within ecological succession, evolution, internet, and the development of human culture. Estimates of emergy and transformity are used to evaluate the resource basis for information and its maintenance. These values are used to consider the limits to information in our civilization and suggest policies consistent for global sharing.


James R. Simms
9405 Elizabeth Court
Fulton, Maryland 20759


The behaviors of living systems are a function of their information and knowledge. Information can be observed and measured. Knowledge and information are directly related. Information (1) cannot be directly observed or measured, (2) can be observed by the behaviors it causes, (3) is defined as the ability to cause work, (4) can be measured by the work it causes, and (5) is ephemeral. Knowledge (1) cannot be directly observed or measured, (2) can be observed by the information it generates which, in turn, is observed by the work it causes, (3) is defined as the ability to generate information, and (4) is a function of a living system's structure and organization.

There is a direct relationship between knowledge, information and behavior. Each cell has structure and organization that provides it with a capability to generate both genetic and biochemical information. Genetic information causes the synthesis of protoplasm, the material of life. Biochemical information causes the cell's biochemical reactions. The synthesis of protoplasm is the basis for the reproduction of living material ¾ the reproduction criterion for life. Biochemical reactions are the basis for the metabolic criterion for life.

The organs and organisms of animals have contractile tissue behaviors in addition to reproduction and metabolic behaviors. Neural information in the form of neural impulses cause the contraction (behaviors) of this tissue.

Keywords: Living Systems, Information, Knowledge, Information and Knowledge Metrics


Social “e-co-realization”: A biosphere ideal of “Syntropic wisdom”

Carl Slawski
Sociology Department
California State University
Long Beach, CA 90840


Virtually all major world religions focus on raising one’s individual personal self-consciousness through meditation in some form. Community values are considered essential in one’s day to day contacts, but the fate of the earth as a whole is seldom brought to the forefront of spiritual thought, except notably in the lore and mythology of the Native American Indian (Novak, 1996, and Zona, 1994) as well as a strain of Buddhism (e.g., Badiner, 1990, but in other religions for the most part only in lesser ways as outlined in World Earth magazine, Winter, 1997). Research has shown an ambiguous relation between Environmentalism and Christianity (Eckberg and Blocker, 1996). This paper will elaborate some possible social and community optima as values to be sought by all, in ways that will seek to extend the thinking of other religions of the world. Stages of faith (of Fowler, 1964, especially the conjunctive or universalizing forms) and collective mind-sets leading up the mode latter to collective “synergic” thinking (Coulter, 1976) will be related to the question of earth sustainability and more fruitful social institutions, and all this in contrast to the forms of alienation and the questions that religions try to answer (as per O’Dea, 1983), namely, contingency, powerlessness and scarcity, but in the search for human happiness. Can earthlings find happiness in the next millennium without reference to and serious collective work towards global consciousness? In what does such global community-centered consciousness consist? How might it change the lives of believers in a spiritual journey (perhaps as discussed by W. James, 1902, in his definition of holiness, in seeming contrast to the more traditional sociological definitions of religion per se, as seen for example, in O’Dea)? How does it answer the questions needed for a new utopian life on earth, in answer to Maslow’s 29 sets of value questions for a new form of community life (1969)? What might be some directions that world religions might take to give greater emphasis to the world earth as a biosphere? Do these directions imply the same aspirations as those propounded in the communitarian movement (espoused by Etzioni 1993)? To set the stage regarding the subtitle, “Syntropy” is defined as a “turning together” toward unified positive action. And wisdom as appropriate action is considered superior to simple consciousness-raising. The ideal is a global and practical one of working for the earth as a biosphere, for its living inhabitants (human and non-human), together with an appropriate balance and use of their supporting environmental resources. Referring to the primary title of the paper, the conceptual focus here refers to social ecology and physical (earth) ecology, the realization of ecological needs, and cooperative joint action, i.e., “co-realization” by intervention based heavily upon the use made of human intelligence (as spelled out in part by Foster, 1985, a philosopher of science in addressing the cosmological story and processes).

This paper as a definitional statement is a novel approach dealing with cosmological questions or creation spiritually in context of an attempt to relate earth sustainability to a general theory of how to live well, be productive and happy, all the while serving the world community in a collectively significant way. The practical conclusion will be a challenge to wise earthlings and general theorists to give meaningful thought and to engage at least in some local practical action that might contribute to sustaining the earth for a longer time that often forecasted by many scientists and for sure by the fundamentalist prophets of the millennium, while at the same time hopefully avoiding the otherwise inevitable Malthusian four horsemen of pestilence, plague, famine and war. This paper is also intended to be a challenge to general theorists to show us how to design a self-renewing system on the level of the “supra-national system” (of Miller’s LSD, 1964). The conceptual development sought for here is a specification of the author’s prior elaboration on quality of life variables, 1990, as well as the “Ecosophy T” theory of “deep ecology” (as stated by the eminent philosopher Arne Naess, e.g., 1986) which ideally should play itself out by a critical mass of wise earthlings who engage in practical, balanced action for well-motivated and co-creative, long-term global survival. This action in turn should result in a maximizing of diverse life forms while maintaining their desirable complexity and symbiotic (or positive mutual) inter-dependence.



traingulating levels of “true Theory”: the case of “Earth and global-societal sustainability”

Carl Slawski
Sociology Department, California State University
Long Beach, CA 90840


As an enhancement and extension of the author’s prior statements about the three levels of “true theory” for the case of “Conflict” (1989, 1990, & 1994), this paper will first highlight the main points of numerous guidelines, sets of norms for action, and other Pre-Theoretical proposals. Then the hard work will begin when examples are presented of the author’s three levels of “true theory”: 1) Problem-Centered, 2) Abstract, and 3) Policy-Oriented. Since few self-contained, let alone general theories (especially of the hypothetico-deductive form) regarding the earth’s ecology have to date been published (as opposed to loosely constructed “models,” partial lists of empirical statements, and incompletely-stated policy guidelines), this is an original and challenging enterprise.

While directly addressing the conference theme, the author has taken the main components of certain Pre-Theories (level A) and begun to turn them into more formally-stated, logically and imaginatively, even graphically integrated statements. Some Pre-Theories include 1) the Megatrends (of Naisbitt, 1984), 2) principles of the “Campaign for Economic Democracy” (Hayden, 1980), 3) ten “Recommendations for the Future of the World” (B. Fuller in Earth, Inc., 1973), 4) the recommendations of the Second Report to the Club of Rome (Mesarovic and Pestel, 1974), 5) “How the Greenhouse Effect Works” (Christian Science Monitor, 1988/1992), 6) the draft statement of the “Earth Charter,” currently (as of 1997) being proposed as a parallel and follow-up to the “U.N. Declaration of Human Rights” (1947), 7) B. H. Banathy’s meta-theory called the “Evolutionary Guidance System” (EGS, 1989), and 8) Slawski’s “Developing the Learning Relationship: A Systems Theory” (1980), and 9) Slawski’s “Systems Vocabulary for Quality of Life” (1990).

For the first level of “true theory,” PROBLEM-CENTERED THEORY, the author has reproduced theoretical charts showing a) Carbon Dioxide’s Effect on the World System (Wood on Meadow’s World3 1983), and b) the main interrelationships between principles governing “The Rational Use of Natural Resources” (from Watt, 1973, in Ramade, 1981/1984), all of which are amenable to formal, axiomatic sets of statements.

For the second level of “true theory,” ABSTRACT THEORY, the author has reproduced selected diagrams of 1) one of H. Odum’s models of earth ecology (1983, Fig.18-26 on Diversity), then 2) of Scienceman (1991, juxtaposed to H. Odum’s work) comparing some central elements of “Emergy” theory to Marxist economics, and finally 3) Slawski’s Small Group Process Theory (1990, as a partial example of Banathy’s EGS). Without an accompanying social scientific theory, the insights of the physical sciences will likely go unheeded. Thus it is proposed that a joint theory of ecology and social transformation be introduced, first at an abstract level, then later at the level of rounded public policy.

For the third and highest level of “true theory,” POLICY THEORY, the author has modified 1)Etzioni’s Communitarian Agenda (1993), as well as 2) the draft document of a United Nations’ committee on the “Earth Charter”, and turned their elements into a pair of related theories that will hopefully be general enough yet open to many forms of future amplification as our knowledge of the interrelations between pertinent global variables emerges. None of the above referenced “Near-Theories” have been translated yet into the optimally most desirable form, namely, as formally-stated and fully logically rationalized sets of interrelated hypotheses and assumptions. 3) eminent philosopher and “deep ecologist” Arne Naess’s “Ecosophy T” (1986) will be presented as the culminating and most sophisticated “true theory” to date. He calls for Self Realization, implying diversity, and this for the benefit of all the planet’s life-forms.

As an alternate extension and tentative synthesis of the above, some of Slawski’s most central among 27 hypotheses in his “General Theory of Chaos, Orderly Change and Actualization” (1995) will be applies to a tentative though abstract integration of the above theories. Finally, based on all of the above, there will be a summing up in terms of a short policy oriented theoretical statement of a “Communitarian Policy for Cosmic Realization” (or SYNTROPY). The whole will be evaluated in terms of (the author’s, 1994, up to 33) applicable criteria for a good theory or practical policy, especially the four main criteria (1974) of 1) Testability or Ease of Application, 2)Information Value, 3) Predictability, and 4) Explanatory Power. Overall, it is hoped that this paper will become a future model for integrating theories in the social and more qualitative physical sciences at a higher level of understanding, with syntheses for practical policy making.


Traingulating levels of “true Theory”: the case of “Earth and global-societal sustainability”
Carl Slawski
Sociology Department, California State University
Long Beach, CA 90840

As an enhancement and extension of the author’s prior statements about the three levels of “true theory” for the case of “Conflict” (1989, 1990, & 1994), this paper will first highlight the main points of numerous guidelines, sets of norms for action, and other Pre-Theoretical proposals. Then the hard work will begin when examples are presented of the author’s three levels of “true theory”: 1) Problem-Centered, 2) Abstract, and 3) Policy-Oriented. Since few self-contained, let alone general theories (especially of the hypothetico-deductive form) regarding the earth’s ecology have to date been published (as opposed to loosely constructed “models,” partial lists of empirical statements, and incompletely-stated policy guidelines), this is an original and challenging enterprise.
While directly addressing the conference theme, the author has taken the main components of certain Pre-Theories (level A) and begun to turn them into more formally-stated, logically and imaginatively, even graphically integrated statements. Some Pre-Theories include 1) the Megatrends (of Naisbitt, 1984), 2) principles of the “Campaign for Economic Democracy” (Hayden, 1980), 3) ten “Recommendations for the Future of the World” (B. Fuller in Earth, Inc., 1973), 4) the recommendations of the Second Report to the Club of Rome (Mesarovic and Pestel, 1974), 5) “How the Greenhouse Effect Works” (Christian Science Monitor, 1988/1992), 6) the draft statement of the “Earth Charter,” currently (as of 1997) being proposed as a parallel and follow-up to the “U.N. Declaration of Human Rights” (1947), 7) B. H. Banathy’s meta-theory called the “Evolutionary Guidance System” (EGS, 1989), and 8) Slawski’s “Developing the Learning Relationship: A Systems Theory” (1980), and 9) Slawski’s “Systems Vocabulary for Quality of Life” (1990).
For the first level of “true theory,” PROBLEM-CENTERED THEORY, the author has reproduced theoretical charts showing a) Carbon Dioxide’s Effect on the World System (Wood on Meadow’s World3 1983), and b) the main interrelationships between principles governing “The Rational Use of Natural Resources” (from Watt, 1973, in Ramade, 1981/1984), all of which are amenable to formal, axiomatic sets of statements.
For the second level of “true theory,” ABSTRACT THEORY, the author has reproduced selected diagrams of 1) one of H. Odum’s models of earth ecology (1983, Fig.18-26 on Diversity), then 2) of Scienceman (1991, juxtaposed to H. Odum’s work) comparing some central elements of “Emergy” theory to Marxist economics, and finally 3) Slawski’s Small Group Process Theory (1990, as a partial example of Banathy’s EGS). Without an accompanying social scientific theory, the insights of the physical sciences will likely go unheeded. Thus it is proposed that a joint theory of ecology and social transformation be introduced, first at an abstract level, then later at the level of rounded public policy.
For the third and highest level of “true theory,” POLICY THEORY, the author has modified 1)Etzioni’s Communitarian Agenda (1993), as well as 2) the draft document of a United Nations’ committee on the “Earth Charter”, and turned their elements into a pair of related theories that will hopefully be general enough yet open to many forms of future amplification as our knowledge of the interrelations between pertinent global variables emerges. None of the above referenced “Near-Theories” have been translated yet into the optimally most desirable form, namely, as formally-stated and fully logically rationalized sets of interrelated hypotheses and assumptions. 3) eminent philosopher and “deep ecologist” Arne Naess’s “Ecosophy T” (1986) will be presented as the culminating and most sophisticated “true theory” to date. He calls for Self Realization, implying diversity, and this for the benefit of all the planet’s life-forms.
As an alternate extension and tentative synthesis of the above, some of Slawski’s most central among 27 hypotheses in his “General Theory of Chaos, Orderly Change and Actualization” (1995) will be applies to a tentative though abstract integration of the above theories. Finally, based on all of the above, there will be a summing up in terms of a short policy oriented theoretical statement of a “Communitarian Policy for Cosmic Realization” (or SYNTROPY). The whole will be evaluated in terms of (the author’s, 1994, up to 33) applicable criteria for a good theory or practical policy, especially the four main criteria (1974) of 1) Testability or Ease of Application, 2)Information Value, 3) Predictability, and 4) Explanatory Power. Overall, it is hoped that this paper will become a future model for integrating theories in the social and more qualitative physical sciences at a higher level of understanding, with syntheses for practical policy making.



The Politics and Ethics of Careers:
A Practitioners' perspective
Dr.Craig Standing
School of Management Information Systems
Edith Cowan University
Joondalup, Western Australia 6027

Skills required in the IS profession are usually examined from an employer perspective. The skills stressed are technical, interpersonal, communication and business related. The case study in the paper looks at the skills required for career progression from an employee perspective. The main difference from previous studies is the emphasis given to the role of politics by IS practitioners.
The paper proposes that IS professionals should be aware of the role of politics in IS development and in career progression. Politics in careers manifests itself in a number of ways such as: negotiation and persuasion, favours, developing strategic friendships and manoeuvering for a better position.
Some individuals may see ethical standards as a matter for personal interpretation. Most professional societies, such as the Australian Computer Society and the British Computer Society, have a code of ethics which cover some of the undesirable aspects of workplace politics. The problem of relying on professional societies to legislate against inappropriate action is that they generally rely on other members to do the 'policing' and so it is sometimes ineffective. Secondly, some IS professionals are not part of any computer society. Organisations should not rely entirely on the professional bodies but should articulate their ethical standards and organisational values.
Practitioners aiming for internal promotion have several options open to them when dealing with the politics within an organisation: they can take on board the more positive aspects of politics, get involved in all aspects of the political fight, or they can decide to move elsewhere.
If a broad or systems perspective is taken of developing a successful IS career within an organisation then a number of factors could be seen as relevant. These could include:
Technical skills
Communication skills
Interpersonal skills
Political skills
Business skills and knowledge
Organisation history and knowledge
Understanding of the culture of organisation
Personal motivation and ambition

Keywords: IS careers, politics, IS skills, ethics.

Unity is stregnth: "VIRIBUS UNITIS" TO "CORRUPTIO"
Rudolf Starkerman
CH-5436, Wuerenlos, Switzerland

Systems theory is used on an elementary social structure to demonstrate the aptness of interpreting psycho-social functioning. With the concept of continuous self control in pursuing a set goal, a proverb of ethically highly rated value, Unity is Strength, is modeled with systems-theoretical mathematical constructs.
A paralleled compound of social units, represented with linear differential equations of first order within an overall feedback loop for self control, serves for the analogy of this adage. A parallel symbol for the motto was used on the flag of the Italian Fasciti: a compound of rods, tied up to a bundle.
The model reveals that the saying .Unity is Strength~ deserves its positive image only if all constituents have a common goal, have about equal powers, equal speed of action and - of utmost importance - have equal orientation with respect to that goal. Otherwise the possibility of corruption to break out is high. -The essay demonstrates the paradoxical dual-value, even multi-value, of proverbs.
This universal truth, Viribus unitis, can be found in many cultured languages. Parallel expressions are in French L'union fair la force; in German Einigkeit macht stark; in Italian L' unione fa la forza.
Whether the common goal is considered to be acceptable by the environment of the system or rejected is not questioned herein. For the system itself the goal is positive.
Fig. 1 depicts the basic structure for the model. It shows three partners in parallel operation with the one goal u(s). The model is mathematical in the Laplace domain. The model's partners do not have cross information among themselves and do not have an individual feedback signal.
As the individual constituents do not have cross-information among each other, corruption remains hidden until a .leak" leaps over.
Such a leak signifies a change in the structure that is not considered in the framework of this presentation. The paper demonstrates the paradoxical dual value, even multiple value, of proverbs. During the investigation of the facts the structure remained constant, which is a rather strong simplification of a social situation. Structures can change very rapidly as new information channels are introduced by an organization or person ' who hears .something~ and tells .something~. Although the structure remains fixed, its parameters (power and speed of acting) change in four steps.

Fig. 1: Structure of the model.
S = summing point of all individual actions.
Some more proverbs related to the essay:
Too many cooks spoil the broth (Balthazar Gerbier, 1662)
Two is a company, three is a crowd (T. Fuller, Gnomologia)
Paddle your own canoe.
Shoemaker, stick to your last.
If you want anything done, do it yourself.
Ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio = Each medal has its reverse.
Corruptio optimi pessima. Corruption of the best is the worst.
Qui vitat molam, vitat farinam. He who does not work shall not eat.
R. Starkermann
CH-5443 Niederrohrdorf Switzerland

The paper is a threefold interdisciplinary attempt to amalgamate concepts of
(1) social phenomena as formulated in daily language via
(2) mathematical language into
(2) strictly defined natural laws.
The author's philosophy is based on the following concept:
The laws of nature existed prior to the creation of all that is. These laws are responsible for either the big bang or whatever else might have brought our solar system into being. They determine the behaviour of all matter. They may lie dormant in a given realm until the conditions permit their becoming operative. For example, prior to the existence of life on the planet earth there could be no influence on animate beings. Nonetheless, the laws are immutable and are played out daily in ongoing events.
A system is explored of three partners who are interacting on the basis of their attitude with which they effect each other's realization - or well-being. The two basic forms of attitude are the aggressive and the conciliating one. That is to say that a partner has either an aggressive or a conciliating inclination in his behaviour toward the other person.
Four patterns of social interaction are derived from one and the same social structure, Fig. 1 of three partners, P1, P2, and P3.
Well-being - or potential of survival - is formulated as a function of the partners' will-power (G1, G2, G3) they exert for their own realization (one can help or damage the other, but one can only realize oneself).
Four sets of investigations are formed allegorically into sayings:
a) The enemy of my enemy is my friend (used as title);
b) Viribus unitis, or l'union fait la force (Unison is strength);
c) Qui est trop bon, est demi-fou; (The weak always goes to the wall) and
d) Corruptio optimi pessima (Corruption of the best is worst).
All findings are depicted as graphs and discussed.
It is found that the fact a) is only conditionally true. In order to make the enemy of the enemy a friend requires not really honest, but some slightly tricky behaviour (tricky in terms of contemporary ethics ) .
For b) the discovery is that aggressive behaviour is advantageous if aggressive partners have congruent goals in mind, otherwise d) comes through: corruption.
For c) the finding is that to be too conciliating, i.e., to accommodate to more than one partner, is to the disadvantage of the devotee.
And d) indicates that if one partner of the three is corrupt the damage is not only to both of the other two partners but as well to the corrupt one. The saying comes true: He that flings dirt at another, dirtieth himself most. Corruption is defined as the opposite goal than that of the other two partners.
Each of the three partners is modelled as a self-reflecting circular continuous cause-effect-cause-structure, a stimulus-response model. Self-reflection provides self-control, and thus, consciousness. Continuity requires that the factor time has to come into play. Everything moves continuously as Heraklit already shall have said: ,,Panta rhei”. As it is of rather great difficulty to think in terms of continuous functioning, it has to be done with mathematics (unfortunately, thinking in terms of differential equations is not easy either).
As a side remark, it is shown that beside the 3 loops of the three partners, there are seven more circular loops through which information passes continuously back and forth between the three individuals:
The 12 loops of the system:
1- G1 - F1 - S11 - 2 - l
3- G2 - F2 - S22 - 4 - 3 Loops of the three partners
5- G3 - F3 - S33 -6 - 5
1-G1 -F1 - S21-4 -3 -G2 -F2 -S12 -2 -1
1-G1 -F1 -S31 -6 -5 -G3 -F3 -S13 -2 -1 Loops passing through two partners
3-G2 -F2 -S32 -6 -5 -G2 -F2 -S23 -4 -3
1-G1-F1-S31-6-5-G3-F3-S23-4-3-G2-F2-S12-2-1 Passing through all three partners
Another hint of the complexity of social structures:
If the characteristic equation (i.e., the character) of the individual partner is described symbolically with a formula of the length of 26mm [see formula (])], the character of the interacting system Fig. 1 has a length of 650mm. The ratio of increase of complexity from one partner to three partners is by a factor of 25!
The character of the individual, say P1, depends symbolically of his functions G1 (will-power), F1 (time for action), S11 (unconscious behaviour), and R1 (self-reflection). Physically (mathematically) the character is formula (1).
1 +R1G1F1S11= 0
The character of the system of the three, however, is formula (2).
1 + R1G1F1S11 + R2G2F2S22 + R3G3F3S33 +
+ R1G1F1R2G2F2S11S22 + R1G1F1R3G3F3S11S33 +
+ R2G2F2R3G3F3S22S33 +
+ R1G1F1R2G2F2R3G3F3S11S22S33 -
- R1G1F1R2G2F2S12S21 - R1G1F1R3G3F3S13S31 -
- R2G2F2R3G3F3S23S32 -
- R1G1F1R2G2F2R3G3F3S11S23S32 -
- R1G1F1R2G2F2R3G3F3S22S13S31 -
- R1G1F1R2G2F2R3G3F3S33S12S21 +
+ R1G1F1R2G2F2R3G3F3S12S23S31 +
+ R1G1F1R2G2F2R3G3F3S21S13S32 = 0
The character of the whole is not only the sum of all three [line 1 of formula (2)], but an additional tremendous involvement of the three characters including their attitudes Sik.
This fact demonstrates that it is absolutely impossible for one single individual to know the outcome of any interaction with other individuals. Concerning interdisciplinary knowledge in social behaviour, there appears a huge question mark on the sky!
If mutual observation of each other's doing (Vik) and mutual physical action (e.g., talking to each other or fighting, Aik) would be added (see Fig. 2), the number of functional loops would increase from 8 to 207. An if a psychiatrist would become involved with the three partners, forming a system of four individuals, according to Fig. 2, the number of loops would go up from 207 to 8992. Such is the complexity of life. There is no way to ever know!
So, sociologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and whoever thinks he can change the world, will never run out of work. This fact is shown herein as a physical-mathematical proof.
It also will be shown that aggression is much more powerful and acts much faster that conciliation. Summa summarum: The story in human societies is a story of conflicts (aggression), not of sharing (conciliation).
Graphs for a), b), c), and d) will be included.

Figure 2

Figure 1. Three partners in social interaction
towards a new analytical framework for change
Francis Stickland
Hewitt Associates
Romeland Hill, St. Albans, Herts, AL3 4EZ, UK
Lawrie Reavill
Management Systems and Information Department
City University Business School, Northampton Square, London, UK

Stickland (1995), and Stickland and Reavill (1995, 1996) have published previously aspects of a research program which examined the nature and dynamics of organizational change. An objective of the research was to develop a framework which would give insight into the nature of change of at the generic level, and provide an analytical frame of reference with which to explore social and organizational change.
The framework (Figure 1) is the result of the application of a General Systems Theory (GST) approach to the phenomenon of change, but is by no means considered complete, comprehensive, or fully defined. In keeping with its GST origin, it is applicable in part to systems across the physical, natural and social sciences, and its purpose is to gain greater insight into the nature and dynamics of organizational change.
This paper discusses the formulation of the framework, and argues for the inclusion of its major components: sources of change and source categories; types of change; foci of change; levels of change; methodology for change; attributes and characteristics of change; degree of change; embedded dynamics of change; principles of change; resistance to change; and the outcome of change.
The paper concludes that the concepts, issues, and ideas embodied within the framework have been found to be applicable to the target domain of organizational change in two Case Study examples, and may be of benefit to change theorists in other subject domains.


Figure 1: Diagrammic summary of the change framework developed and proposed by this thesis.
Towards a new critical systems thinking: philosophical reflections on systems methodology and systems ethics
Sytse Strijbos
Faculty of Philosophy, Vrije Universiteit
De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

In the systems tradition different methodologies have been developed for managing our technological world while aiming to transform this world into a better place for humans to live in. This endeavour confronts us not only with how questions but also with why questions and normative questions concerning the structuring or restructuring our world. In this paper we will reflect on the philosophical underpinnings of systems methodology. It will be argued that a certain kind of systems ethics is implicit in each methodology, although people need not be necessarily aware of it. Three ideas are fundamental for the systems ethics promoted in this paper. First, that managing our technological world is a multi-actor process taking place at different interconnected levels of the system. Second, the idea that human acting has a multi-modal character and requires a simultaneous realization of different norms. Third, the idea that human acting shows an intrinsic qualitative diversity.

nlq theory n modeling complex non-linear systems
Bala G. Subramanian
Electrical Engineering
PB 0061, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gaborone, Botswana

Thermodynamics is one of the cornerstones of scientific training; it deals with energy levels and transfers of energy between systems and between different states of matter. The real world is characterized by constant energy change or in a state of flux. The mathematical model of energy relationships plays an useful [art in understanding about the mysterious quantity, entropy. This quantity entropy tells us the way isolated reactions will proceed and in combination with enthalpy can tell us which way ordinary reactions will proceed.
Thermodynamics, Information Theory and Complex Systems
Process modeling which combines the thermodynamics of fluid flow and information theory helps is to build realistic models of complex natural phenomena. It is in fact a tribute to the creativity of the human mind that scientists in the last century were able to “see through” the constant flux around them and create what is in essence a model of energy relationship in the equilibrium world.
Aim of This Paper
In this paper, we concentrate on the NLq theory and its applications to the control of several types of non-linear behavior, including chaos. NLq theory is unifying in nature. Artificial neural Nets have enormous applications in modeling and control of complex linear systems. An appreciable property of neural network models is that they can model a large class of nonlinear phenomena and on the other hand remain mathematically tractable.
Different types of behavior can be mastered within NLq theory, using neural state space models. We show how chaos can mastered within NLq theory, using the model-based approach. We take the model M, controller C, and reference model L given by


[For notations & symbols refer- Suykens J.A.K., Vandewalle J. (1995) NLq theory: a unifying framework for analysis, design, and applications of complex non-linear systems, NDES’95-International Workshop on ‘non-linear dynamics of electronic systems’ Ireland Dublin, pp.121-130, July, 1995.]
We cite an example by applying this NLq theory model to the problem of controlling non-linear distortion in electronic loudspeakers.

Martin Sundel
Florida International University
School of Social Work, ACI, Suite 234
North Miami, FL 33181

Systems scientists can play an important role in analyzing ethnic tensions and designing innovative approaches to sustain peaceful relationships between groups with a history of interethnic violence. Ethnic conflict has continued its course throughout the world, accompanied by daily news reports of racial and ethnic prejudice and atrocities. The development and maintenance of these phenomena can be traced to historical factors and the influence of various systems and suprasystems on the target groups. This paper describes a humanitarian study sponsored by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UHNCR) to improve ethnic relations in the island country of Cyprus. The study involved consideration of complex social and ecological systems that required development of an innovative approach to analyzing and integrating multiple perspectives.
Cyprus is a country divided by war, and Nicosia is the last divided capital in the world. The United Nations Peacekeeping Force has been in Cyprus since 1963, longer than anywhere else. This makes planning and development efforts complex in terms of interactions with individuals and governmental units in both communities. For example, considerable planning was required to simply move back and forth between the two communities because the borders are guarded by Greek Cypriot soldiers on one side and Turkish Cypriot soldiers on the other.
The purpose of the study was to assess the mental health services and resources in Cyprus and determine the feasibility of developing a mental health unit that would serve both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. The author was engaged as a consultant to design and implement the mental health project to foster collaboration between the two communities, which had a long history of interethnic violence. The process of establishing the mental health unit was intended to foster positive interactions between mental health professionals and citizens in both communities by their participation in planning and developing mental health services that would benefit all Cypriots.
The author developed a methodology to conduct a needs assessment of Greek and Turkish Cypriot mental health services and resources. The methodology consisted of four components: 1) preliminary meetings with mental health administrators and government officials of both communities; 2) review of existing documents, statistical data, and literature; 3) site visits to mental health facilities in both communities to complete program survey forms; and 4) meetings with volunteers and mental health professionals from nongovernmental organizations.
Findings from the needs assessment identified mental health resources and needs in both communities. The Greek Cypriot community had a larger number and wider variety of mental health professionals, programs, and funding resources than the Turkish Cypriot community. Analysis of the data indicated that both communities lacked resources for reintegrating individuals with severe and chronic mental illness into the community through psychosocial rehabilitation, vocational training, and other community supports.
A seminar on mental health issues was arranged that was attended by representatives of both communities. The seminar provided a the basis for sharing mental health knowledge and experiences, and for laying the groundwork for future collaboration between Greek and Turkish Cypriot mental health professionals. A followup study was conducted the following year in which a team of Greek and Turkish Cypriot mental health professionals were sent to the United States to attend a one-week training seminar on psychosocial rehabilitation. The consultant worked with the team to establish a cooperative group that could return to Cyprus to implement the bicommunal mental health unit. The team would provide a nucleus for development of a bicommunal council that would expand the involvement of citizens in both communities. The relevance of this approach to other localities will also be discussed. This paper describes the role of a mental health practitioner with a systems orientation in collecting and analyzing information from multiple sources and multiple perspectives, and in working with individuals, groups, and organizations at different levels in both communities. The paper provides new knowledge on the role of systems and suprasystems in fostering and maintaining ethnic conflict, and on ways to foster and sustain peaceful relationships between ethnic groups in a complex ecological system.

A World on the Edge: Is the New Supranational System
Propelling the World toward Socioeconomic Chaos?
G.A. Swanson and Russell C. Kick
Tennessee Technological University

A single global economy and financial marketplace now exists in which over $1.4 trillion daily, equivalent to over $250 for every man, woman and child on Earth, is moved by real-time computer systems into the electronic financial market place for speculation. On the other hand, only about $20 billion daily, representing 1.5 percent of speculative funds is employed for economic trade. The ratio of funds for speculation to funds for economic trade is sixty-six to one; less than three decades ago the ratio was four to one.

Speculation creates debt for nations while amassing tremendous hordes of wealth for the few. It results in a gross misallocation of financial and economic resources and exacerbates the inequality between the world’s rich and poor. A speculative bubble, estimated to be as high as $1,000 trillion, hovers over the world, threatening socioeconomic chaos.
This bubble has been created principally by the floating exchange-rate system, which emerged in the 1970s. The ongoing Asian monetary crisis, intensified by floating exchange-rate currency speculation, poses an interesting question. Is this a major adjustment of a maturing supranational system or is it an early warning signal of an overloaded system that is about to collapse?
The current socioeconomic-financial system erupted into being quickly. It was not planned nor is it monitored and controlled. It has opened a doorway for major unethical practices and for exacerbation of world problems. The new system should be open to study, and accountability established. To accomplish this, rules of public disclosure must first be established. It should be determined if the perceived imbalance between money flows for speculation and those facilitating trade is in fact information overload or to be expected at the supranational level. Alternatives to a fully speculative system and measures to protect the infrastructure should be introduced and studied.

EMERGY BASIS FOR ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: valuing the work of nature and humanity
David R. Tilley
Environmental Engineering Sciences
University of Florida, 32611

Understanding and accounting for the total contribution of nature to the wealth of a region or state is needed so that national lands can be managed effectively, especially in face of increasingly diverse demands. The natural wealth and production of a high elevation (900m - 1550m) watershed (1130 ha) in the Nantahala National Forest of North Carolina was valued with emergy. Emergy is a system property that relates all flows and storages of energy, materials, and information to the one form of source energy required for their formation and maintenance. Emergy values were converted to emergy-dollars (EM$) so that nature's work could be easily compared with humanity's. The annual production of 1.4 m^3/m^2 of pure water and 4.2 MT/ha of wood growth was valued at 1.5 million and 320,000 EM$, respectively, for the entire watershed. In addition to the direct production of goods and services, the human economy matched the annual flow of 1.5 million EM$ with 1.3 million EM$ of resource use in the form of tourism, road construction, travel expenditures and other local economic activities. The forest contained the following stocks of wealth (in EM$/ha): groundwater -- 1400, litter -- 1600, wood -- 26,000, soil organics -- 81,000, and saprolite (soil profile) -- 76,000,000. An estimate of the value of tree species diversity, based on the species-area curve, revealed that the emergy required for supporting each additional species increased as the square of the number of species. An annual "cost of organization" was estimated as 160 EM$/species per a species added. Over an area of 6 ha, 9 tree species required 176 EM$/species/y. Over the entire 65 ha sampled 27 tree species required 676 EM$/species/y for support. Emergy accounting is a rigorously quantitative tool for valuing and comparing the work of nature with that of humans.

Lane Tracy
Department of Management Systems, Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701

Living systems are vulnerable at many points and to a variety of dangers. There are many ways to kill them. Living systems attempt to protect themselves from dangers in their environment through the use of decider processes, boundary processes, and adjustment processes. Yet predators, poisons, and other adverse environmental conditions may overwhelm the defenses of a living system and render it incapable of sustaining life. This paper seeks to identify across levels and in general terms the ways in which living systems are vulnerable to attack. Methods of attack are grouped into broad classes, such as denying access to vital resources, introducing poisons into the environment or injecting them into the system, disconnecting critical subsystems or components, feeding false information to the system, and inducing uncontrolled growth. The identification of points of vulnerability will aid analysis for purposes of defense as well as attack. It will also help us to understand the processes of life as they manifest themselves across the various levels of living systems.

Keywords: living systems, death, decider, boundary, adjustment process

F. Tretter
District Hospital Haar/Munich

Ecology without Systems Thinking is blind,
Systems Thinking without Ecology is empty.
Contemporary anthropology is insufficient in fields of clinical work. In parallel, especially in psychiatry the “biopsychosocial" model is used for explaining, understanding and treating diseases like schizophrenia, depression addiction etc. From a psychological-point of view (predominantly in psychoanalysis of KERNBERG) the term ,,relation" (relationship etc.) is getting more and more importance. If one also considers the approach of ecological psychology which was founded by Kurt LEWIN, BARKER, BRONFENBRENNER etc. one can understand the ,,ecology of e person" as the relationship of the person with her total environment. This perspective is elaborated in the field of human ecology,
In the field of (clinical) psychology the term relation is differentiated at a qualitative level of semantic resolution by the terms ,,give" and ,,take" (comp. FOA & FOA). Thus the degree of balance at the relationship (the household) of giving and taking can be considered as one source of problems at psychiatric patients and it can be considered for designing therapy.
After a short while of analysis already the complexity of relevant relations of a person gels a great complexity. This can be seen at approaches of family therapy. Therefore there is the need to make the analysis of interpersonal relations more precise.
Method and Results:
When trying to establish the concept ,,relation" in a scientific way one has to think of mathematical tools like graph theory (HEIDER, CARTWRIGHT & HARRARY). For analysis of structures of relations one can use systems methodology by defining the relations as a system and by representing it by a graph. Usually at clinical tasks this level of analytical resolution is sufficient, however for purposes of research one can elaborate the functional structures with the help of differential equations and by computer simulations (BOSSEL).
In the paper it will be demonstrated that a graphical way of presenting the problem structure of a health problem of a person can help to understand the term ,,household of relations" in a dynamical way. This approach is applied to a complex scientific understanding of drug addiction.
If the new approach to understand a person in is living complexity in an ecological perspective it is unavoidable to use systems methodology in an explicit way.
Trotter, F. (1998): Die Okologie tier Sucht (The Ecology of Addiction). Hogrefe, Gottingen (FRG)

Dr. Len Troncale
Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences
Director, Institute for Advanced Systems Studies
California State Polytechnic University
3801 W. Temple Ave., Pomona, Calif. 91768

What could systems science teach a new generation about “sustainability?” Everything. This presentation will show that the fundamental knowledge base of systems science and of “sustainability” overlap significantly and are mutually supportive. One of the two key knowledge bases of the systems sciences consists of isomorphies. These are essential structures or processes that have been shown to be similar across a great diversity of natural systems. They are the first causes of the origin and long-term survival of many natural systems. They are so fundamental that we may usefully conceive of real, natural systems, ranging from the cosmos to ecosystems, as merely specific manifestations of the same set of isomorphies that have unfolded at different scales across time. In this conceptualization, the isomorphies, though generally considered abstract generalizations, are in fact more real than the “real” systems. The isomorphies are the mechanics through which any system maintains its “health.” So the practical understanding of the 100 or so isomorphic processes is also essential to a practical understanding of how ecosystems originate and survive, in a word, “sustain” themselves. In many cases, the isomorphies are as essential to human systems as they are to natural systems. So they provide more than a mechanical understanding of how ecosystems can be sustained; they provide a set of values and very specific rules for human system design and human behavior to promote the sustainability of ecosystems.
But where in our current K-College curriculum is systems science taught? Virtually nowhere. This presentation will provide a critical overview of a sweeping 30 years of attempts at systems education. It will draw conclusions about the many attempts and failures of ISSS-affiliated institutions to promote “sustainable” systems education programs. This review will also touch on various specific attempts funded by federal and state grants to integrate the teaching of systems science with “environmental education” and with “general science education.” The talk will end with a list of lessons learned from this historical review. These lessons that might help future workers more successfully initiate new systems education programs as well as spread vital knowledge on how ecosystems can be sustained.

Dr. Len Troncale
Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences
Director, Institute for Advanced Systems Studies
California State Polytechnic University
3801 W. Temple Ave., Pomona, Calif. 91768

This paper will begin with a presentation of the current status of the Integrated Science General Education Program funded by the CSU and the National Science Foundation. The ISGE Program uses systems concepts as integrative themes to unify and synthesize the teaching of seven sciences. The paper and presentation will report on the current level of ISGE production, assessment, and dissemination, as well as a description of the importance of ISGE to the field of systems science in general, and the ISSS In particular. Our systems-based “universal” integrative themes will be distinguished from “domain” integrative themes. The more than 100 case studies of specific phenomena in the seven sciences will be described in overview. We will show how the coverage of science topics provided by the case studies fulfills the evolving national standards for each of the sciences, and matches the coverage given each science in the three best-selling texts for each. The main portion of the paper and presentation will focus on our proposal of a dozen or more “identifying features” for each systems integrative theme. General education students are poor in science, much less the more abstract systems science. It is difficult for them to perceive and understand natural objects and even more difficult for them to “see” the abstract processes common across objects. We will show how we use sets of “identifying features” to help them “recognize” systems processes in a wide variety of the “real” natural systems they encounter in daily life. In this way. the ISGE program not only teaches general education science, it teaches systems science to the general public.

Dr. Len Troncale
Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences
Director, Institute for Advanced Systems Studies
California State Polytechnic University
3801 W. Temple Ave., Pomona, Calif. 91768
(909) 869-4038 or

This evening workshop will consist of a multimedia presentation of the current status of the Integrated Science General Education Program funded by the CSU and the National Science Foundation. The ISGE Program uses systems concepts as integrative themes to unify and synthesize the teaching of seven sciences. We will demonstrate the learning synergies obtained by using technology-based computer managed instruction balanced by face-to-face interdisciplinary lab and skill-training sessions. We will demonstrate 12 outstanding multimedia features, and 24 effective learning enhancement features of the ISGE courseware. Stunning science graphics, intriguing animations, interactive learning games, and beautiful systems-based metaphors will be shown. The results of assessment of the prototype modules will also be presented and how an innovative use of systems development software more closely couples the evaluation results and associated changes in module design and production. An ambitious, international dissemination network will be attempted and partners in the process sought.

Andrew Turk and Kathryn Trees

Murdoch University
South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia

This paper discusses how information technology can be used to help sustain a complex social system. It describes the Ieramugadu Cultural Information System which is being developed with the indigenous community formed by the Ngaluma, Injibandi and Banjima peoples in Roebourne, Western Australia. Research aspects focus on the development and evaluation of innovative procedures for elicitation, analysis, storage and communication of Aboriginal cultural heritage information. It is investigating culturally appropriate information systems design techniques, multimedia approaches, and ways to ensure protection of secret/sacred information. The use of heritage information for education and negotiation is being developed and evaluated. Ethical considerations are also foregrounded.
A broader conceptual framework is needed for the specification of heritage information to match the needs of the complex social system and to facilitate community development. The forms of representation used must be adequate to fully express the underlying cultural concepts. They must be grounded in the fundamental nature of the traditions and needs of the community. Thus, cultural heritage information must express the integrated relationships between:
places - not just an arbitrary configuration of physical locations but an assemblage of places connected by meanings associated with traditional belief systems;
people - the specific group/s of people who possess the meaningful relationship with (and are responsible for) those particular places;
procedures - the laws and customs which link the people to the places and sustain their unique relationship to the land and each other;
presentations - the practices and physical manifestations by which the laws and customs and meaning relations between the people and places are expressed (and hence maintained), such as ceremonies and paintings.

Jan van der Stoep
Institute for Cultural Ethics
Puntenburgerlaan 85
3812 CC Amersfoort, THE NETHERLANDS

Internet is one of the most remarkable manifestations of new developments in information- and communication technology (ICT). It is not simply a tool, but it also changes our social behaviour. Development and use of internet is therefore not only a technical but also a normative affair. In this paper I examine internet from a system ethics approach. From this point of view I search for criteria to distinguish information from desinformation and communication from miscommunication. First of all internet is a means to exchange information (World Wide Web). I will argue that in information exchange the meaning of the message is crucial. In order to understand the meaning of the message it is important to know something about the context and author of the message. I will argue that the use of hyperlinks may distract people from the meaning of the message, but may also be used to generate a useful framework of orientation.
Secondly, internet is a means to communicate with one another (E-mail, newsgroups and chatboxes). Communication is a matter of social intercourse. Due to direct electronic accessibility the possibility to contact one another increases. At the other hand, however, direct accessibility may also frustrate social intercourse by blurring the dinstinctions between different lifespheres (family, business, goverment etc.). Therefore the accessibility of people in different lifespheres has to be regulated. Finally, something will be said about the virtual reality of internet. It will be argued that not the real or virtual character of the simulation is a decisive criterion, but the way in which the simulation refers to the real world.

The Viabiliy of System Science as a sceintific discipline
John P. van Gigch
Professor Emeritus, California State University, Sacramento
1219 La Sierra Dr. Sacramento, CA 95864

The idea of System Science(s) was formalized in 1956 with the creation of the Society for General Systems Research, the precursor of the ISSS. After almost 50 years the Society os struggling to survive. The panelists and the public will be asked to ponder what “real” progress or breakthrough was accomplished by System Science(s). Do we have any reason to be optimistic about the future? Will or should the idea of System Science(s) survive another 50 years? What are its purposes for it to remain an innovative and viable field of science?

Albert Vlug and J. van der Lei
Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University
Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

Evaluation of a system results in a considered judgement whether the system is good or not. The evaluation process contains verification and validation. Verification of a system concerns 'building the system right'. For example, an issue here is: are the usual methods and norms used in the right way? Validation of a system concerns 'building the right system'. For example, an issue here is: is the over-all performance of the system fullfulling the needs of the context for which it was meant?
The development of systems thinking shows at least three sensible ways for looking at systems. These ways, or paradigms, are: 1) a technical or mechanic way, 2) a social or contextual way and 3) a critical or self-reflecting way. Each paradigm has its own definition of 'system', its own method to develop a system, and its own philosphical underpinning when entering the scientific discourse.
Some aspects of the evaluation of a system belongs to (a stage of) the method. Considerations whether the right method is used or not, cannot be part of a method, but they are part of the science about methods: the methodology. Since the system definition and the system development method is threefold, the evaluation process can be considered as part of also three corresponding methodologies: 1) the hard systems methodologies, 2) the soft systems methodologies and 3) the critical system methodologies.
In this paper we will focus on the different ways in which the evaluation is part of the methodology to develop systems. Each evaluation is applied on a specific system: a national drug-safety system in the Netherlands. The question of this paper is: what is the relation between those evaluations and, more specific, is it possible to define one evaluation as a last stage after building the system. The advantage could be: a technical assessment by external observers which could make a comparison between systems more disputable. The result is that each evaluation requires several tasks in some of the preceding stages. Some of these tasks may be objectively formulated in terms of checklists or heuristics, but others are subjectively connected to people in the problem situation or to people affected by the system. To evaluate the subjective norms and the way they are treated, need another kind of norms. The integration of these norms into one evaluation seems to be dependent on the integration of the different methodologies on one hand and a better understanding of contradictory normative approaches on the other.

Professor Sam Waters, George Bakehouse,
Christopher Davis, and Kevin Doyle
IS School, Faculty of Computer Studies and Mathematics
University of the West of England
Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY
United Kingdom
Complex ecological and social systems depend upon people exploiting the key resource of information. In identifying resources, the Industrial Revolution gave us the ‘4 M’s’ of men, money, machines and materials, the Green Revolution gave us the environment (the natural world that we have inherited , that we briefly inhabit and that we must conserve for our future generations) and the Computer Revolution gave us information; today, we would re-phrase ‘men’ as ‘people’ and ‘machines’ as ‘technology’. Information is widely regarded as the intangible resource (although money could be argued to be a special case of information in that currencies, notes and coins of the realm, are merely promises by the National Bank to pay the bearer their designated values). Seminal works by Kent, Stamper and others warn us of the dangers of dealing with this abstraction whist in the practical world of commerce, industry and administration the President of the Confederation of British Industry maintains that ‘managing information is the greatest challenge facing all organisations today’. This paper addresses the question of how can we interpret this theoretical abstraction of the information resource into the practical reality of ‘helping people to get better with information’ (which is the mission to the UK National Health Service information management strategy that embraces this ISSS Conference topic of ‘Information to make a difference’).
A helpful starting point is recent research by Earl, Boaden and Lockett, Waters and others which distinguishes between Information Technology (IT), Information Systems (IS) and Information Management (IM). Probably, everybody’s information resource is largely supplied by IS which exploits IT and is developed by the strategic, tactical and operational processes of IM; further, IT is highly complex technically, we have never witnessed a simple IS and IM has been a disaster socially (as evidenced by the appalling success rates of all our efforts, as low as 20% according to some UK empirical research studies). Within this context of IM, Wang et al provide a taxonomy of the dimensions of information. In this paper, their taxonomy is compared with similar research reported by Galliers, Reynolds, Waters and the UK Chartered Institute of Bankers in an attempt to extend the classification and further define the characteristics into a more complete set. In summary, our conclusion is that the objective of IM is to deliver the right information to the right person to support the right activities at the right time in the right place at the right cost with the right quality in the right presentation and with the right availability (in the same sense of Drucker’s definition of improving organisational effectiveness and efficiency as ‘doing the right thing right’). In practice, if people understand and improve upon these dimensions of information then they will ‘get better with information’; ultimately, we all need to be empowered to DIY (do it yourself) our own IM in order to achieve sustainable success.
Given this taxonomy and definition of information dimensions, the quality of information in practical real-world settings can be measured in terms of the occurrences of defects (eg: engineering’s MTBF and MTTR). Thus, ethnographical field research methods (particularly observation) can be applied to identify information failures and to verify, classify and quantify their occurrences; ultimately, this helps people to prioritise their information problems in order to propose and implement solutions. The paper concludes with some results from our recent empirical research which compare leading technological organisations in four sectors of the UK economy; these are Banking (Citicorp), Construction (Kvaerner - Trafalgar House), Health (Frenchay NHS Healthcare Trust) and Transportation (LEX). This comparison identifies their stages of IS development (as originally defined by Nolan and subsequently extended by Galliers and Sutherland), their relative timescales and costs (measured in terms of IS investment per employee per annum) and their information quality (indicated by the average number of defects suffered by each employee each day). Our current field research is extending these trials into other sectors, including Manufacturing (ABB, British Aerospace), in an attempt to improve information quality control by back-tracking he causes of defects and evaluating their effects by forward-tracking, where possible.

homo’s quest for understanding VIEWED as innate human spirituality: implications for secular leadership
Elizabeth White, MBA, Ph.D
Texas Instruments
14222 N. Dallas Parkway #2098
Dallas, Texas 75240

Exploration of a hypothesis and a conjecture: The hypothesis is that human mind is an emergent capacity: arising concurrent with and resulting from an emergent capacity in the “Homo” lineage to identify a personal “self;” to see “self” as “apart from” - separate from others and the environment; to carry that “self” concept/experience as a “names” virtual, conceptual “Elaborating” object; an, along with the increasing capacity for “conscious” “Recognition” to begin to explore this separateness, this “distance” as “perspective,” as “relationship,” and as “time.”
This hypothesis sees human “mind” as emerging from the “lucky” confluence of elaborated/elaborating “Homo” brain capacities, including the capacity to store detailed “visual” representations or external, concrete environments an objects, and to store--embedded in the neural architecture along with the visual representations -- the entire physical /psychological experience of/in/with that environment/and its objects. This experience always, necessarily, includes the embedded experience of “self” as a part of the whole experience.
The conjecture is that, further, if we define spirituality as the potential ”to wonder,” i.e., “to ask why,” as well as, “to stand in awe,” we can reasonably argue that this potential is inherent in the above mentioned emerging/emergent “Homo” capacity to identify and explore “self” and concurrently “self in relation to,” as “mind” emerged/emerges.
I will explore some possible implications of the above hypothesis and the accompanying conjecture for leaders in these four areas as well as for generic, secular leadership, especially as we view human systems in an evolutionary context, i.e., as evolving complex dynamic systems. I will particularly focus on two concepts: 1. “emergence space” and 2. “generative versus historic” information. Generative information I defines as the ongoing confluence of information/energy that, at every “point” in our universe, at every “moment,” is generating the next “moment”, i.e., the “future.”
Finally, as we as a species consider our future, the Future we are unwittingly spinning, a web spun of our concurrent global interactions as a species, I will argue that the next critical question for Homo is to ask “Where?” “Just where are we going?”

Jennifer M. Wilby
Lincoln School of Management, University of Lincolnshire and Humberside
Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TA UK
Hierarchy theory is one of several possible systems approaches that has been used in the study of complexity. It has been used in the observing of complex situations, and it has been applied in many other systems and non-systems studies. It is also noted that the theory is systemic in itself, dealing with the issues central to systems science, e.g. the importance of the observer, and the flows of matter, energy, and information throughout systems.
Hierarchy theory has been applied in such diverse fields of study as ecology, biology, linguistics, business, philosophy, mathematics and physics. While much knowledge has been accumulated from the application of hierarchy theory in these disciplines, there are three main areas for further research seen in hierarchy theory. First, there is a need for a unified definition of the principles and practices of the theory. Second, there is a need to define the linkages and possible utilities of applying hierarchy theory in concert with other practical methodologies. Third, there is the lack of a specific methodology for the application of hierarchy theory to demonstrate its practical utility.
This paper is part of an on-going research which aims to determine the utility and validity of hierarchy as a systems approach for: (1) the analysis of existing complex systems and problem situations, (2) the planning of interventions in existing complex situations, and (3) the design of future systems.
The paths that will be used to explore hierarchy theory in this paper and in further research are:
the path of describing hierarchy theory as a strand of systems thinking in itself, as exampled in Checkland’s Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (1981), or
the path of describing hierarchy theory within a framework of systems e.g. as a part of the Burrell and Morgan framework (1979), or
or as a path where a methodology is created which will be evaluated in further research as to whether such a methodology for hierarchy theory has practical application or whether it should be viewed as an abstraction, or a mental model, for the description of systems and their future design.
Outcomes of the overall research will include the construction of a set of principles for hierarchy theory, the evaluation and design of a methodology for hierarchy theory, and the critical evaluation of hierarchy theory in terms of which or many of the above paths best describe the usefulness of hierarchy theory.

The Influence of a Multi-Modal thinking on a Self-Study of Teaching Reform in a University Information Systems Course
Mark Campbell Williams, PhD
Faculty of Business, School of Management Information Systems
Edith Cowan University

From 1991 to 1993 I conducted a qualitative investigation of the influence of open discourse on technicism in a University Business Computing Course. I discontinued the research on realising, through a reflective self-study, that I had acted unethically. To address this breach of ethics, I conducted an heuristic inquiry, from 1993 to 1996, to delve deeply, using heuristic reflection, into the nature, and possible healing, of the causes of my research short-comings. The change in research approach and direction was influenced by my reading of the multi-modal philosophy of the Amsterdam School (an approach that has been incorporated into systems thinking in the work of Donald de Raadt).
Process oriented change within the industrial supply system - a systemic evaluation of current practices
Department of Management Systems and Information
City University Business School, London, UK

Large Multinational Corporations (LMCs) are increasingly operating on a global scale to deal with the pressures of change. The potential of new markets, the development of new technologies, fierce competition, as well as the increasingly demanding customer have all fuelled these changes. To remain competitive, LMCs are having to rapidly improve their quality, speed and service whilst constantly reducing their costs, at increasingly faster rates. Consequently, LMCs have had to become leaner and more flexible and have employed process oriented change programmes such as quality management and process re-engineering to achieve this. To be successful, the scope of such changes has extended beyond the traditional organisational boundary to include their suppliers in what is, the paper argues, a supply system. Yet, in operating within a system of alliances and networks that is constantly adapting and evolving, the level of complexity necessitates an approach that can deal with the issues involved. This is exacerbated by the difficulty, often faced, in achieving successful outcomes from process oriented change programmes, despite the commitment and resources often allocated to them. If multinational corporations and their suppliers are to operate within a supply system, rather than a supply chain, then a more systemic approach to their process oriented change programmes is required. The paper presents the need for a systems approach to this subject area. It proposes to use Critical Systems Theory (CST) and its ‘practical face’, Total Systems Intervention (TSI), as the basis for evaluation of both the quality and re-engineering programmes being used within and between LMCs and their suppliers. By evaluating these practices using the Critical Review Process, the paper presents possible areas where improvements can be made. To support the arguments put forward, case study examples are presented from research conducted in both the automotive and mobile telecommunications industries as a basis of comparison and further discussion. It is concluded that if LMCs and their suppliers are to be successful in operating within the supply system, then the means through which they do so must also be more systemic. By evaluating the practices of quality management and re-engineering through a systems approach using CST principles and TSI practices, it is proposed that an improved appreciation and understanding of these techniques can then be applied.

Keywords: Supply system, quality management, re-engineering, CST, process oriented change

Fred B. Wood, Sr., PhD (elec.engin.), P.E.
Computer Social Impact Research Institute
2346 Lansford Ave., San Jose, CA 95125

Forecasting and assessing the development of revolutionary technologies pose a substantial challenge because the techniques such as trend extrapolation, evolutionary projections, substitution curves, cybernetic systems analyses, and the like are limited in their ability to capture "out of the box" or "wild card" possibilities. Over the last several decades, successive iterations have been developed of a multi-dimensional systems approach to assessing revolutionary technologies (Wood, 1979, 1996). This approach includes a structure for relating knowledge about classes of activity, levels of phenomena, and stages of evolution. It is called the "N-Dimensional Knowledge Proximity" systems approach, because it emphasizes an identification of almost current knowledge up to 1992 (six years old to cooperate with military institutions to protect security for six years) about a technology so as to identify and understand the linkages between different dimensions or variables, and to provide a robust basis for projecting future developments and implications. In this paper, the history and current status of the Knowledge Proximity Approach is summarized, with emphasis on refinements that have been made since the 1996 ISSS meeting in Budapest, Hungary. The objective in limiting security classification of new weapons concepts to six years is to let religious and public service organizations have a genral knowledge of the trend in weapons development from 1946 to 1992 so that they can start work on the ethical problems involved with new weapons systems without disturbing the secrecy of the latest weapons development. In World War II the United States tried to keep the Atomic bomb secret until after we had killed 66,000 people and wounded 69,000 people at Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945. This did not give the people who specialized in dealing with ethical questions a chance to sort through the ethical questions until after the new weapon had been used. A more humanitarian way would be to have a United Nations Committee discussing the ethics of the new class of weapons before some conflict escalates into World War III. The National Council of Churches, the Buddhist Peace Fellowship, and other groups could discuss with military leaders whether six years is adequate or whether more time like ten years is needed by the military institutions for initial new weapons design.

Keywords: Creation, Electromagnetics, Ethics, Weapons, Medicine

Dr. Zhichang Zhu
Lincoln School of Management
Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK

This article is a supplement to a 1996 ISSS paper in which three systems-based approaches were brought together for comparison and a suggestion was made that all three approaches are built upon a multi- conceptual framework which contains three broad dimensions: the technical (objective), the cognitive (subjective) and the social (intersubjective). In this article, more approaches based on a similar conceptual categorisation are reported. It will be suggested that the convergence among the reported approaches may present a common pattern that underlies human’s search for systemic inquiry and action regardless variations in cultural characteristics and national mind-sets. It is also expressed that it can be helpful for dealing with the increasing uncertainty and complexity confronting humankind if researchers world-wide become more open to mutual informing and learning.

Keywords: systems approach, differentiation, multiplicity, relations inquiry system, multimethodology, postmodernism, cultural traditions, comparative studies, mutual learning.